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History of political science.

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Political Science  is the science that studies both the state and government institutions related to the human being as a political and social animal.
Political Science includes all these things: The origin of political science is very ancient.  Greek thinker He is called the father of political science.  in Greek thought Idealism and Aristotle's Rationalism. study political science There was a tradition of doing it on the basis of the concepts of Adi.  In modern times, it was not only accepted as an independent subject, but it also had a substantial development in the context of social sciences.  The study of Political Science in today's context is more important than before, while on the other hand it is also very complex.

 The importance of political science is manifested by the fact that today the study of political process is necessary to understand both national and international politics.  It is only through the study of process that knowledge of real politics and the facts contained within them is possible.

 The complexity of political science is related to their overlapping form and the nature and nature that arise from them.  Today political science deals with both 'political' and non-political elements.  Political elements directly govern the political process and from this point of view state government, government institutions, election system and political behavior are studied under political science.  The non-political elements indirectly contribute to the running of the political process and therefore the correct understanding of politics can be achieved only by integrating them.  For this purpose, adequate importance is given to allied elements like society, economy, religion, culture, geography, science and technology, psychology and history in political studies.

 The form, study material and its traditions have been changing from time to time due to the contributions of various thinkers, theorists and analysts from the time of Greek thinkers to the modern period.  Accordingly, this topic has been continuously developing.  In this development, two major approaches have emerged in relation to the study of political science: the traditional approach and the modern approach.  traditional approach while the modern approach.                                                                    
(1) Traditional view of political science.

 From the sixth century BC to the 20th century approximately The political approach, which has been prevalent till the past, is called 'Traditional Political Approach' from the point of view of study convenience.  It is also called idealistic or classical approach.

 Many political thinkers have contributed in the formation and development of traditional political theory such as Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Saint Augustine, Aquinas, Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Green etc.  Even in the modern era, many scholars are considered to be supporters of the traditional approach, such as Leo Strauss, Eric , Hannah Arend etc.

 In ancient Greece and Rome, the concepts of philosophy, ethics, logic, history and law were made the basis for the formation of political theory, but in the period, mainly the Christian theological approach was made the basis for the formation of political theory.  The Renaissance movement in the 16th century gave birth to intellectual political consciousness as well as gave birth to the concept.  18th century The democratic revolutions of France and America led to the development of traditional political theory in the form of 'liberal democratic political theory'.

 The traditional political approach has mainly adopted philosophical, logical, ethical, historical and legal methods for the formulation of political theory.  Since the 19th century, it has laid special emphasis on legal, constitutional, institutional, descriptive and comparative methods.  From the beginning of the 20th century, the traditional approach adopted a new approach to the formulation of political theory which was more realistic than in the past.  in traditional political science Emphasis is placed on the study of social-political facts influencing the policies and decisions of the government in practice outside and outside its statutory organs. As well as the study of formal organizations.  It also laid emphasis on the study of those social, economic conditions and movements which are clearly outside the formal organization of the government but influence its policies and programmers meaning and definition.                                                                                          
Synonyms of politics the word 'politics' It is derived from the word 'polis' which means 'city' or 'state'.  In ancient Greece, each city was organized as an independent state, and the word politics used to refer to the science of governance related to those city-states.  Gradually, the city states were replaced by the national states, so politics also became a discipline related to the broad spectrum of the state.

 In the modern era, when the world is leaning towards scientific and systematic study of every subject, the study of subjects related to the state is called Political Science or Political Science.  The scholars of traditional political science have given different definitions of political science.  These definitions can be explained under the following headings.                       
(1) Political science is the study of the state - Many political scientists believe that political science has been in existence since ancient times.  It is the subject of study of the institution called.  Scholars believe that the 'central element' of political science from ancient times to modern times It's been  Therefore, only the state should be studied in political science.  According to the famous political scientist , political science is that science which is concerned with the state and which tries to understand what are the basic elements of the state, what is its essential nature, in what various forms it is expressed and its development.  How did it happen.' German writer Gerri states that in political science, as an institution of power, all relations of the state, its origin, its embodiment (land and inhabitants), its purpose, its moral importance, its economic problems,  The stages of its existence, its financial aspect, purpose, etc.,


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