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Anuska  posted in Poetry

Differences between String[] and ArrayList

String[] is an array of Strings while ArrayList is a generic class that takes different types of objects. Therefore we can only perform normal array operations with String[]. However, we can use additional, convenient utilities such as isEmpty(), iterator, etc with ArrayList since it also implements Collection Interface.

ArrayList has some neat methods, such as add(), remove(), and contains().

An array String[] cannot expand its size. You can initialize it once giving it a permanent size:

String[] myStringArray = new String[10]();
myStringArray[0] = "Test";
An ArrayList is variable in size. You can add and remove items dynamically:
ArrayList myStringArrayList = new ArrayList();
Furthermore, we can sort, clear, addall, and a lot more functions and can use while using an ArrayList. 

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:18:22 AM

Group a list of objects by an attribute

This will add the employee object to the HashMap with locationID as key.
HashMap> hashMap = new HashMap>>();
Iterate over this code and add an employee to the HashMap:
if (!hashMap.containsKey(locationId)) {
    List list = new ArrayList >();
list.add(employee ); hashMap.put(locationId, list); } else { hashMap.get(locationId).add(employee ); }
If you want all the employee with particular location details then you can use this:
which will get you all the employee with the same the location ID.

Java 8 groupingBy Collector

You can just use the Collectors.groupingBy() bypassing the grouping logic as a function parameter and you will get the split list with the key parameter mapping. Note that using Optional is used to avoid unwanted NPE when the provided list is null

public static  Map> groupBy(List list, Function keyFunction) {
    return Optional.ofNullable(list)
Now you can groupBy anything with this. For the use case here in the question
MapEmployee>> map = groupBy(employee list, Employee::getLocation);

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:17:35 AM

How to add double quotes automatically, converting a list of strings as comma-separated values?

We can perform it in two steps with StringUtils only,
List s = new ArrayList<>();

String step1 = StringUtils.join(s, "\", \"");// Join with ", "
String step2 = StringUtils.wrap(step1, "\"");// Wrap step1 with "

"ten", "twenty", "thirty"

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:14:16 AM

When is the @JsonProperty property used and what is it used for?

Here's a good example. I use it to rename the variable because the JSON is coming from a .Net environment where properties start with an upper-case letter.

public class Parameter {
  public String name;
  public String value; 
This correctly parses to/from the JSON:

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:13:27 AM

What is REST API error handling best practices?

I wouldn't return a 200 unless there really was nothing wrong with the request. From RFC2616, 200 means "the request has succeeded."
If the client's storage quota has been exceeded (for whatever reason), I'd return a 403 (Forbidden):

This tells the client that the request was OK, but that it failed (something a 200 doesn't do). This also gives you the opportunity to explain the problem (and its solution) in the response body.

What other specific error conditions?

The main choice is done you want to treat the HTTP status code as part of your REST API or not.

Both ways work fine. I agree that strictly speaking, one of the ideas of REST is that you should use the HTTP Status code as a part of your API (return 200 or 201 for a successful operation and a 4xx or 5xx depending on various error cases.) However, there is no REST police. You can do what you want. I have seen far more egregious non-REST APIs being called "RESTful."
At this point (August 2015) I do recommend that you use the HTTP Status code as part of your API. It is now much easier to see the return code when using frameworks than it was in the past. In particular, it is now easier to see the non-200 return case and the body of non-200 responses than it was in the past.

The HTTP Status code is part of your API
  1. You will need to carefully pick 4xx codes that fit your error conditions. You can include a rest, XML, or plaintext message as the payload that includes a sub-code and a descriptive comment.
  2. The clients will need to use a software framework that enables them to get to the HTTP-level status code. Usually doable, not always straightforward.
  3. The clients will have to distinguish between HTTP status codes that indicate a communications error and your own status codes that indicate an application-level issue.
  4. The HTTP Status code is NOT part of your API
    1. The HTTP status code will always be 200 if your app received the request and then responded (both success and error cases)
    2. All of your responses should include "envelope" or "header" information. Typically something like:
      envelope_ver: 1.0
      status:  # use any codes you like. Reserve a code for success. 
      msg: "ok" # A human string that reflects the code. Useful for debugging.
      data: ...  # The data of the response, if any.
    3. This method can be easier for clients since the status for the response is always in the same place (no sub-codes needed), no limits on the codes, and no need to fetch the HTTP-level status code.
Main issues:
  1. Be sure to include version numbers so you can later change the semantics of the api if needed.
  2. Document

Do remember that 5xx errors are server-side, aka the client cannot change anything to its request to make the request pass. If the client's quota is exceeded, that's definitely not a server error, so 5xx should be avoided.

This is extremely late to the party, but now, in the year 2013, we have a few media types to cover error handling in a common distributed (RESTful) fashion. See "vnd.error", application/vnd.error+json (https://github.com/blongden/vnd.error) and "Problem Details for HTTP APIs", application/problem+json (https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-nottingham-http-problem-05).

There are two sorts of errors. Application errors and HTTP errors. The HTTP errors are just to let your AJAX handler know that things went fine and should not be used for anything else.

5xx Server Error

500 Internal Server Error
501 Not Implemented
502 Bad Gateway
503 Service Unavailable
504 Gateway Timeout
505 HTTP Version Not Supported
506 Variant Also Negotiates (RFC 2295 )
507 Insufficient Storage (WebDAV) (RFC 4918 )
509 Bandwidth Limit Exceeded (Apache bw/limited extension)
510 Not Extended (RFC 2774 )

2xx Success

200 OK
201 Created
202 Accepted
203 Non-Authoritative Information (since HTTP/1.1)
204 No Content
205 Reset Content
206 Partial Content
207 Multi-Status (WebDAV)
However, how you design your application errors is really up to you. Stack Overflow for example sends out an object with responsedata and message properties. The response I believe contains true or false to indicate if the operation was successful (usually for write operations). The data contains the payload (usually for read operations) and the message contains any additional metadata or useful messages (such as error messages when the response is false).

Agreed. The basic philosophy of REST is to use the web infrastructure. The HTTP Status codes are the messaging framework that allows parties to communicate with each other without increasing the HTTP payload. They are already established universal codes conveying the status of the response, and therefore, to be truly RESTful, the applications must use this framework to communicate the response status.
Sending an error response in an HTTP 200 envelope is misleading, and forces the client (API consumer) to parse the message, most likely in a non-standard, or proprietary way. This is also not efficient - you will force your clients to parse the HTTP payload every single time to understand the "real" response status. This increases processing, adds latency, and creates an environment for the client to make mistakes.

Don't forget the 5xx errors as well for application errors.
In this case what about 409 (Conflict)? This assumes that the user can fix the problem by deleting stored resources.
Otherwise, 507 (not entirely standard) may also work. I wouldn't use 200 unless you use 200 for errors in general.

If the client quota is exceeded it is a server error, avoid 5xx in this instance.

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:12:58 AM

hardcode string vs @string in Java code - Android

Using multiple strings of the same value no matter the method (Strings.xml vs programmatically) doesn't seem to have any associated overhead. According to Oracle "All literal strings and string-valued constant expressions are interned" which means that the object is reused rather than re-created if you use it again.

That way you have a fixed place to alter all your strings within the project. Let us say you used the same string in 10 different locations in the code. What if you decide to alter it? Instead of searching for where all it has been used in the project you just change it once and changes are reflected everywhere in the project.

Well, strings.xml would have to be parsed, wouldn't it? Then I suppose hardcoded would be best for performance, though probably unnoticeable at runtime. People do choose to use it though in order to have all the strings in one spot in case there are plans to translate the app.

There are many benefits to setting the strings in a strings.xml file; in a nutshell, it allows you to use the same string in multiple locations, which is good if you somehow need to modify the string later. It also allows you to display the same text in different languages; hardcoding the string doesn't give you all those options.
BTW, you don't need to put every text in the strings.XML file; only the ones that might be used in multiple places in the application.
The general rule for placing strings in the strings.xml file are these:
  • Will it be used in multiple locations 
  • Will it be used in multiple languages 
  • Will it be dynamic or static 

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:12:38 AM

how to replace "(double quotes) in a string with \" in java 

Example - 

str = str.replace("\"", "\\\"")

Avoid using replaceAll since it uses regex syntax in description of what to replace and how to replace, which means that \ will have to be escaped in string "\\" but also in regex \\ (needs to be written as "\\\\" string) which means that we would need to use.
str = str.replaceAll("\"", "\\\\\"");
str = str.replaceAll("\"", Matcher.quoteReplacement("\\\""))

How do I retrieve query parameters in a Spring Boot controller?

Use @RequestParam

@RequestMapping(value="user", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public @ResponseBody Item getItem(@RequestParam("data") String empId){

    Emp i = empDao.findOne(empId);              
String EmpName = i.getEmpName();
String dept= i.getDept(); return i; }

Storing a new object as the value of a hashmap?

HashMap mapper = new HashMap();
mapper.put("Satya", new Emp("Satya"));
... Emp value = mapper.get("Satya"); Integer memory = value.getMemory();

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:12:06 AM

How do I add headers for requests from an API?

The sample code:

// Example POST method implementation:
async function postData(url = '', data = {}) {
  // Default options are marked with *
  const response = await fetch(url, {
    method: 'POST', // *GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.
    mode: 'cors', // no-cors, *cors, same-origin
    cache: 'no-cache', // *default, no-cache, reload, force-cache, only-if-cached
    credentials: 'same-origin', // include, *same-origin, omit
    headers: {
      'Content-Type': 'application/json'
    redirect: 'follow', // manual, *follow, error
    referrerPolicy: 'no-referrer', // no-referrer
    body: JSON.stringify(data) // body data type must match "Content-Type" header
  return await response.json(); // parses JSON response into native JavaScript objects

postData('https://example.com/answer', { answer: 08 })
  .then((data) => {
    console.log(data); // JSON data parsed by `response.json()` call

 implementation based on the code above:

fetch(url, {
        headers: {
            "User-Agent": "MyAppName/Version# (Language=Javascript; Platform: Linux)"
    }).then(function(resp) {
        return resp.json();

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:11:29 AM

Java Variables - A variable is a container that holds the value while the Java program is executed. A variable is assigned with a data type. The variable is the name of a memory location. 

A variable is the name of a reserved area allocated in memory. In other words, it is the name of the memory location. It is a combination of "vary + able" which means 
its value can be changed.

Types of Variables

There are three types of variables in Java:

local variable
instance variable
static variable

1) Local Variable

A variable declared inside the body of the method is called local variable. You can use this variable only within that method and the other methods in the class 
aren't even aware that the variable exists.

A local variable cannot be defined with "static" keyword.

2) Instance Variable

A variable declared inside the class but outside the body of the method, is called an instance variable. It is not declared as static.

It is called an instance variable because its value is instance-specific and is not shared among instances.

3) Static variable

A variable that is declared as static is called a static variable. It cannot be local. You can create a single copy of the static variable and share it among all 
the instances of the class. Memory allocation for static variables happens only once when the class is loaded in the memory.


public class A  
    static int x=10;    //static variable  
    void method()  
        int y=20;        //local variable    
    public static void main(String args[])  
        int data=100;//instance variable    

Java Variable Example: Add Two Numbers

public class Simple{    
public static void main(String[] args){    
int a=10;    
int b=10;    
int c=a+b;    

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:05:44 AM

Operators in Java - is a symbol that is used to perform operations. For example: +, -, *, / etc.

There are many types of operators in Java which are given below:

Unary Operator,
Arithmetic Operator,
Shift Operator,
Relational Operator,
Bitwise Operator,
Logical Operator,
Ternary Operator and
Assignment Operator.
Java Operator Precedence

Operator Type      Category          Precedence   

Unary                        postfix           expr++ expr--
prefix                        ++expr --expr +expr -expr ~ !
Arithmetic                     multiplicative * / %
additive                    + -
Shift                         shift << >> >>>
Relational                 comparison < > <= >= instanceof
equality                         == !=
Bitwise                        bitwise AND &
bitwise                          exclusive OR ^
bitwise                          inclusive OR |
Logical                        logical AND &&
logical                            OR ||
Ternary                         ternary ? :
Assignment assignment = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= >>>=

Java Unary Operator

The Java unary operators require only one operand. Unary operators are used to perform various operations i.e.:

incrementing/decrementing a value by one
negating an expression
inverting the value of a boolean

Java Unary Operator Example: ++ and --

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int x=10;  
System.out.println(x++);//10 (11)  
System.out.println(x--);//12 (11)  

Java Unary Operator Example 2: ++ and --

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=10;  
System.out.println(a++ + ++a);//10+12=22  
System.out.println(b++ + b++);//10+11=21  

Java Unary Operator Example: ~ and !

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=-10;  
boolean c=true;  
boolean d=false;  
System.out.println(~a);//-11 (minus of total positive value which starts from 0)  
System.out.println(~b);//9 (positive of total minus, positive starts from 0)  
System.out.println(!c);//false (opposite of boolean value)  

Java Arithmetic Operators
Java arithmetic operators are used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They act as basic mathematical operations.

Java Arithmetic Operator Example

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=5;  

Java Arithmetic Operator Example: Expression

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
System.out.println(10*10/5+3-1*4/2);          //21

Java Left Shift Operator
The Java left shift operator << is used to shift all of the bits in a value to the left side of a specified number of times.

Java Left Shift Operator Example

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  

Java Right Shift Operator

The Java right shift operator >> is used to move the value of the left operand to right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

Java Right Shift Operator Example

public OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
System.out.println(10>>2);//10/2^2=10/4=2          //2
System.out.println(20>>2);//20/2^2=20/4=5           //5
System.out.println(20>>3);//20/2^3=20/8=2           //2

Java Shift Operator Example: >> vs >>>

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
    //For positive number, >> and >>> works same  
    System.out.println(20>>2);                                        //5
    System.out.println(20>>>2);                                        //5
    //For negative number, >>> changes parity bit (MSB) to 0  
    System.out.println(-20>>2);                                      //-5
    System.out.println(-20>>>2);                                       // 1073741819

Java AND Operator Example: Logical && and Bitwise &

The logical && operator doesn't check the second condition if the first condition is false. It checks the second condition only if the first one is true.

The bitwise & operator always checks both conditions whether first condition is true or false.

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=5;  
int c=20;  

Java AND Operator Example: Logical && vs Bitwise &

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=5;  
int c=20;  
System.out.println(a);//10 because second condition is not checked           //10
System.out.println(a);//11 because second condition is checked                 //11

Java OR Operator Example: Logical || and Bitwise |

The logical || operator doesn't check the second condition if the first condition is true. It checks the second condition only if the first one is false.

The bitwise | operator always checks both conditions whether first condition is true or false.

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=5;  
int c=20;  
//|| vs |  
System.out.println(a);//10 because second condition is not checked            //10
System.out.println(a);//11 because second condition is checked                //11

Java Ternary Operator

Java Ternary operator is used as one line replacement for if-then-else statements and is used a lot in Java programming. It is the only conditional operator which takes 
three operands.

Java Ternary Operator Example

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=2;  
int b=5;  
int min=(a
System.out.println(min);     //2

Java Assignment Operator

Java assignment operator is one of the most common operators. It is used to assign the value on its right to the operand on its left.

Java Assignment Operator Example

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
int a=10;  
int b=20;  
a+=4;//a=a+4 (a=10+4)  
b-=4;//b=b-4 (b=20-4)  
System.out.println(a);     //14
System.out.println(b);       //16

Java Assignment Operator Example

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String[] args){  
int a=10;  
System.out.println(a);     //13
System.out.println(a);      //9
System.out.println(a);      //18
System.out.println(a);      //9

Java Assignment Operator Example: Adding short

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
short a=10;  
short b=10;  
//a+=b;//a=a+b internally so fine  
a=a+b;//Compile time error because 10+10=20 now int  
System.out.println(a);      // compile time error

After type cast:

public class OperatorExample{  
public static void main(String args[]){  
short a=10;  
short b=10;  
a=(short)(a+b);//20 which is int now converted to short  
System.out.println(a);      // 20

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:05:12 AM

Java Keywords

Java keywords are also known as reserved words. Keywords are particular words that act as a key to a code. These are predefined words by Java so they cannot be 
used as a variable or object name or class name.

List of Java Keywords

A list of Java keywords or reserved words are given below:

abstract: Java abstract keyword is used to declare an abstract class. An abstract class can provide the implementation of the interface. It can have abstract and 
non-abstract methods.

boolean: Java boolean keyword is used to declare a variable as a boolean type. It can hold True and False values only.

break: Java break keyword is used to break the loop or switch statement. It breaks the current flow of the program at specified conditions.

byte: Java byte keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold 8-bit data values.

case: Java case keyword is used with the switch statements to mark blocks of text.

catch: Java catch keyword is used to catch the exceptions generated by try statements. It must be used after the try block only.

char: Java char keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold unsigned 16-bit Unicode characters.
class: Java class keyword is used to declare a class.
continue: Java continue keyword is used to continue the loop. It continues the current flow of the program and skips the remaining code at the specified condition.

default: Java default keyword is used to specify the default block of code in a switch statement.

do: Java do keyword is used in the control statement to declare a loop. It can iterate a part of the program several times.

double: Java double keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold a 64-bit floating-point number.

else: Java else keyword is used to indicate the alternative branches in an if statement.

enum: Java enum keyword is used to define a fixed set of constants. Enum constructors are always private or default.

extends: Java extends keyword is used to indicate that a class is derived from another class or interface.

final: Java final keyword is used to indicate that a variable holds a constant value. It is used with a variable. It is used to restrict the user from updating the 
value of the variable.

finally: Java finally keyword indicates a block of code in a try-catch structure. This block is always executed whether an exception is handled or not.

float: Java float keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold a 32-bit floating-point number.

for: Java for a keyword is used to start a for loop. It is used to execute a set of instructions/functions repeatedly when some condition becomes true. If the number 
of iteration is fixed, it is recommended to use for loop.

if: Java if keyword tests the condition. It executes the if block if the condition is true.

implements: Java implements keyword is used to implement an interface.

import: Java import keyword makes classes and interfaces available and accessible to the current source code.

instanceof: Java instanceof keyword is used to test whether the object is an instance of the specified class or implements an interface.

int: Java int keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold a 32-bit signed integer.

interface: Java interface keyword is used to declare an interface. It can have only abstract methods.

long: Java long keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold a 64-bit integer.

native: Java native keyword is used to specify that a method is implemented in native code using JNI (Java Native Interface).

new: Java new keyword is used to create new objects.

null: Java null keyword is used to indicate that a reference does not refer to anything. It removes the garbage value.

package: Java package keyword is used to declare a Java package that includes the classes.

private: Java private keyword is an access modifier. It is used to indicate that a method or variable may be accessed only in the class in which it is declared.

protected: Java protected keyword is an access modifier. It can be accessible within the package and outside the package but through inheritance only. It can't be 
applied with the class.

public: Java public keyword is an access modifier. It is used to indicate that an item is accessible anywhere. It has the widest scope among all other modifiers.

return: Java return keyword is used to return from a method when its execution is complete.

short: Java short keyword is used to declare a variable that can hold a 16-bit integer.

static: Java static keyword is used to indicate that a variable or method is a class method. The static keyword in Java is mainly used for memory management.

strictfp: Java strictfp is used to restrict the floating-point calculations to ensure portability.

super: Java super keyword is a reference variable that is used to refer to parent class objects. It can be used to invoke the immediate parent class method.

switch: The Java switch keyword contains a switch statement that executes code based on test value. The switch statement tests the equality of a variable against 
multiple values.

synchronized: Java synchronized keyword is used to specify the critical sections or methods in multithreaded code.

this: Java this keyword can be used to refer to the current object in a method or constructor.

throw: The Java throw keyword is used to explicitly throw an exception. The throw keyword is mainly used to throw custom exceptions. It is followed by an instance.

throws: The Java throws keyword is used to declare an exception. Checked exceptions can be propagated with throws.

transient: Java transient keyword is used in serialization. If you define any data member as transient, it will not be serialized.

try: Java try keyword is used to start a block of code that will be tested for exceptions. The try block must be followed by either catch or finally block.

void: Java void keyword is used to specify that a method does not have a return value.

volatile: Java volatile keyword is used to indicate that a variable may change asynchronously.

while: Java while keyword is used to start a while loop. This loop iterates a part of the program several times. If the number of iterations is not fixed, it is 
recommended using the while loop.

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:04:53 AM

Features of Java

These are the most important features of the Java language is given below.

1.  Simple
2.  Object-Oriented
3.  Portable
4.  Platform independent
5.  Secured
6.  Robust
7.  Architecture Neutral
8.  Interpreted
9.  High Performance
10. Multithreaded
11. Distributed
12. Dynamic


According to Sun Microsystem, Java language is a simple programming language because:

Java is very easy to learn, and its syntax is simple, clean, and easy to understand. 
Java syntax is based on C++ (so easier for programmers to learn it after C++).
Java has removed many complicated and rarely-used features, for example, explicit pointers, operator overloading, etc.
There is no need to remove unreferenced objects because there is an Automatic Garbage Collection in Java.


Java is an object-oriented programming language. Everything in Java is an object. 

Object-oriented means we organize our software as a combination of different types of objects that incorporate both data and behavior.

Object-oriented programming (OOPs) is a methodology that simplifies software development and maintenance by providing some rules.

The basic concepts of OOPs are:



Java is portable because it facilitates you to carry the Java bytecode to any platform. It doesn't require any implementation.

Platform Independent

Java is platform independent

Java is platform-independent because it is different from other languages like C, C++, etc. which are compiled into platform-specific machines while Java is a 
write-once, run-anywhere language. A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs.

There are two types of platforms software-based and hardware-based. Java provides a software-based platform.

The Java platform differs from most other platforms in the sense that it is a software-based platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms. 
It has two components:

Runtime Environment
API(Application Programming Interface)

Java code can be executed on multiple platforms, for example, Windows, Linux, Sun Solaris, Mac/OS, etc. Java code is compiled by the compiler and converted into 
bytecode. This bytecode is a platform-independent code because it can be run on multiple platforms, i.e., Write Once and Run Anywhere (WORA).


Java is best known for its security. With Java, we can develop virus-free systems. Java is secured because:

No explicit pointer

Java Programs run inside a virtual machine sandbox

Classloader: Classloader in Java is a part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which is used to load Java classes into the Java Virtual Machine dynamically. 
It adds security by separating the package for the classes of the local file system from those that are imported from network sources.

Bytecode Verifier: It checks the code fragments for illegal code that can violate access rights to objects.

Security Manager: It determines what resources a class can access such as reading and writing to the local disk.

Java language provides these securities by default. Some security can also be provided by an application developer explicitly through SSL, JAAS, Cryptography, etc.


Java is robust because:
It uses strong memory management.
There is a lack of pointers that avoids security problems.
Java provides automatic garbage collection which runs on the Java Virtual Machine to get rid of objects which are not being used by a Java application anymore.
There are exception-handling and the type checking mechanism in Java. All these points make Java robust.


Java is architecture neutral because there are no implementation-dependent features, for example, the size of primitive types is fixed.

In C programming, the int data type occupies 2 bytes of memory for 32-bit architecture and 4 bytes of memory for 64-bit architecture. However, it occupies 4 bytes 
of memory for both 32 and 64-bit architectures in Java.


Java is faster than other traditional interpreted programming languages because Java bytecode is "close" to native code. It is still a little bit slower 
than a compiled language (e.g., C++). 

Java is an interpreted language which is why it is slower than compiled languages, e.g., C, C++, etc.


Java is distributed because it facilitates users to create distributed applications in Java. RMI and EJB are used for creating distributed applications. 

This feature of Java makes us able to access files by calling the methods from any machine on the internet.


A thread is like a separate program, executing concurrently. We can write Java programs that deal with many tasks at once by defining multiple threads. 

The main advantage of multi-threading is that it doesn't occupy memory for each thread. It shares a common memory area. Threads are important for multi-media, Web applications, etc.


Java is a dynamic language. It supports the dynamic loading of classes. It means classes are loaded on demand. It also supports functions from its native 
languages, i.e., C and C++.

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:04:00 AM

Data Types in Java

Data types specify the different sizes and values that can be stored in the variable. There are two types of data types in Java: primitive and non-primitive.

Primitive data types: The primitive data types include boolean, char, byte, short, int, long, float, and double.

Non-primitive data types: The non-primitive data types include Classes, Interfaces, and Arrays.

Java Primitive Data Type - In Java language, primitive data types are the building blocks of data manipulation. These are the most basic data types available in Java language.

There are 8 types of primitive data types:

Boolean data type
byte data type
char data type
short data type
int data type
long data type
float data type
double data type

Data Type Default size
boolean 1 bit
char 2 byte
byte 1 byte
short 2 byte
int         4 byte
long 8 byte
float 4 byte
double 8 byte

Boolean Data Type
The Boolean data type is used to store only two possible values: true and false. This data type is used for simple flags that track true/false conditions.

The Boolean data type specifies one bit of information, but its "size" can't be defined precisely.


Boolean one = false  

Byte Data Type
The byte data type is an example of a primitive data type. It is an 8-bit signed two's complement integer. Its value range lies between -128 to 127 (inclusive). Its minimum value is -128 and the maximum value is 127. Its default value is 0.

The byte data type is used to save memory in large arrays where memory savings is most required. It saves space because a byte is 4 times smaller than an integer. It can also be used in place of the "int" data type.


byte a = 10, byte b = -20  

Short Data Type
The short data type is a 16-bit signed two's complement integer. Its value range lies between -32,768 to 32,767 (inclusive). Its minimum value is -32,768 and its maximum value is 32,767. Its default value is 0.

The short data type can also be used to save memory just like the byte data type. A short data type is 2 times smaller than an integer.


short s = 10000, short r = -5000  

Int Data Type
The int data type is a 32-bit signed two's complement integer. Its value range lies between - 2,147,483,648 (-2^31) to 2,147,483,647 (2^31 -1) (inclusive). Its minimum value is - 2,147,483,648and maximum value is 2,147,483,647. Its default value is 0.

The int data type is generally used as a default data type for integral values unless there is no problem with memory.

int a = 100000, int b = -200000  

Long Data Type
The long data type is a 64-bit two's complement integer. Its value-range lies between -9,223,372,036,854,775,808(-2^63) to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807(2^63 -1)(inclusive). Its minimum value is - 9,223,372,036,854,775,808and maximum value is 9,223,372,036,854,775,807. Its default value is 0. The long data type is used when you need a range of values more than those provided by int.

long a = 100000L, long b = -200000L  

Float Data Type
The float data type is a single-precision 32-bit IEEE 754 floating point. Its value range is unlimited. It is recommended to use a float (instead of a double) if you need to save memory in large arrays of floating point numbers. The float data type should never be used for precise values, such as currency. Its default value is 0.0F.

float f1 = 234.5f  

Double Data Type
The double data type is a double-precision 64-bit IEEE 754 floating point. Its value range is unlimited. The double data type is generally used for decimal values just like float. The double data type also should never be used for precise values, such as currency. Its default value is 0.0d.

double d1 = 12.3  

Char Data Type
The char data type is a single 16-bit Unicode character. Its value range lies between '\u0000' (or 0) to '\uffff' (or 65,535 inclusive). The char data type is used to store characters.

char letterA = 'A'  

Post updated on:  Feb 20, 2023 1:03:19 AM

Vicky Kaushal Katrina Kaif wedding Updates: बॉलीवुड की मोस्ट गॉर्जियस डीवा कटरीना कैफ और दमदार एक्टर विक्की कौशल ने शादी कर ली है. लव बर्ड्स विक्की और कटरीना सवाई माधोपुर के सिक्स सेंसेस फोर्ट बरवाड़ा में सात फेरे लेकर हमेशा के लिए एक हुए.

कटरीना कैफ और विक्की कौशलहाइलाइट्स

कटरीना कैफ-विक्की कौशल की हुई शादी, सवाई माधोपुर के सिक्स सेंसेस फोर्ट में लिए सात फेरे

शादी में कटरीना ने पहना सब्यासाची का लहंगा

आखिरकार बॉलीवुड के मोस्ट लव्ड कपल विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ सात जन्मों के बंधन में बंध गए. शोबिज की चकाचौंध से दूर राजस्थान के सवाई माधोपुर स्थित सिक्स सेंसेज फोर्ट में उनकी शाही शादी हुई. साल की सबसे बड़ी शादी में चंद मेहमानों को ही शरीक होने का मौका मिला. कटरीना कैफ ने विक्की कौशल से nine  December wedding . फैंस को कपल की शादी की तस्वीरों को कबसे इंतजार था. अब वो इंतजार की घड़ी खत्म हो गई है. कटरीना कैफ ने इंस्टा पर शादी की तस्वीरें शेयर कर अपनी शादी का ऐलान किया है. ये तस्वीरें बेहद खूबसूरत हैं.

विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ की शादी की तस्वीरों के साथ उनकी वरमाला का वीडियो भी सामने आ गया है. आतिशबाजी, ढोल, नगाड़ों के साथ मेहमानों के बीच कपल की वरमाला हुई. विक्की कौशल और कटरीना शादी के जोड़े में मेड फॉर ईच अदर लगे. कटरीना ने रेड कलर का लहंगा और विक्की की ऑफ व्हाइट शेरवानी पहनी.

फैंस के लिए बड़ी खुशखबरी है. विक्की और कटरीना की शादी की पहली तस्वीर सामने आ गई है. अपनी शादी में कटरीना कैफ ने डार्क पिंक लंहगा पहना. वहीं विक्की कौशल ने ऑफ व्हाइट शेरवानी पहनी. कटरीना और विक्की की शादी की जो तस्वीर सामने आई है उसमें दोनों एडोरेबल लगे.
बॉलीवुड के मैरिड कपल्स में अब विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ का नाम भी शामिल हो गया है. राजस्थान के सवाई माधोपुर स्थित सिक्स सेंसेज फोर्ट में दोनों की शादी संपन्न हुई. इसी के साथ कटरीना और विक्की पति पत्नी बन गए हैं. दोनों का रिश्ता आधिकारिक हो गया है. वे सात जन्मों के लिए एक दूसरे के हो गए हैं. दोनों की ये शादी करीबी लोगों की मौजूीदगी में हुई. आज देत रात कपल शादी की रिसेप्शन पार्टी देगा.

विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ की शादी की रस्में जारी हैं. खबरें हैं कि विक्की कौशल ने अपनी शादी में पंजाबी स्वैग के साथ एंट्री की. बारारियों के साथ विक्की कौशल ने पिंक शेरवानी पहने विंटेज कार में धमाकेदार एंट्री मारी. उनकी एंट्री के वक्त ढोल बज रहे थे. 
कटरीना कैफ और विक्की कौशल के वेडिंग केक की कीमत सामने आई है. खबरों के मुताबिक, केक की कीमत 3-4 लाख है. 

राजस्थान के सिक्स सेंसेज फोर्ट के अंदर पंजाबी ढोल बजाए जा रहे हैं. साथ ही धीमी आवाज में शहनाई की आवाज भी सुनने को मिल रही है. विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ की शादी का इवेंट जोर शोर से चल रहा है. सूत्रों के मुताबिक, किसी भी वक्त शादी का कार्यक्रम शुरू हो सकता है. सभी बराती वेन्यू में पहुंच चुके हैं.

कटरीना कैफ और विक्की कौशल सवाई माधोपुर के चौथ का बरवाड़ा स्थित 700 साल पुराने ऐतिहासिक किले में  बंधन में बंधेंगे. हाल ही में सिक्स सेंस कम्पनी द्वारा इस ऐतिहासिक किले को होटल में तब्दील किया गया है.  ये ऐतिहासिक किला विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ की शादी का गवाह बनेगा. विक्की ओर कटरीना की शादी समारोह की बात करें तो पहले सेहराबन्दी का कार्यक्रम होगा और फिर विक्की कौशल की बारात होटल के इस छोर से दूसरे छोर पहुंचेगी जहां विशेष तौर से तैयार किये गए मंडप में कटरीना विक्की के साथ साथ फेरे लेंगी ओर फेरों के साथ ही दोनों वैवाहिक बंधन में बंध जाएंगे.
संगीत सेरेमनी में विक्की कौशल ने पॉपुलर बिजली सॉन्ग पर डांस किया और कटरीना की ब loहन को गाने का हुक स्टेप भी सिखाया. संगीत में विक्की ने अपने विदेशी ससुराल वालों को पंजाबी भी सिखाई. विक्की ने उन्हें सिखाया की पंजाबी में हेलो कैसे बोलते हैं. 

संगीत में ऐसा था कटरीना-विक्की का लुक

संगीत सेरेमनी में कटरीना कैफ ने पिंक कलर का लहंगा पहना था, जिसपर जरी और मोतियों का वर्क हुआ था. वहीं दूसरी ओर विक्की कौशल ने संगीत में शेरवानी पहनी थी. संगीत में मेहमानों को फोन इस्तेमाल करने की इजाजत नहीं थी. 

एक्टर विक्की कौशल और कटरीना कैफ nine December . कपल अब पति-पत्नी कहलाया जाएगा. मुंबई के जुहू स्थित बिल्डिंग में दोनों ने किराए पर घर लिया है. अनुष्का शर्मा और विराट कोहली, दोनों ही विक्की और कटरीना के पड़ोसी होने वाले हैं.       

राजस्थानी स्टाइल में तैयार की गई कटरीना की डोली
कटरीना की ग्रैंड वेडिंग में ट्रेडिशनल डोली का भी खास तौर पर इंतजाम किया गया है. एक्ट्रेस के लिए डोली की सजावट राजस्थानी मिरर वर्क से की गई है. कटरीना इसी डोली में  बैठकर मंडप में आएंगी. 

कटरीना और विक्की के नाम से मशहूर त्रिनेत्र गणेश मंदिर के लोकल पुजारी प्रार्थना करेंगे और प्रसाद बांटेंगे. कोविड-19 और सिक्योरिटी को मद्देनजर रखते हुए कटरीना और विक्की फोर्ट से बाहर नहीं आ सकेंगे. ऐसे में पुजारी फोर्ट तक प्रसाद लेकर खुद आएंगे.

Post updated on:  Dec 13, 2021 2:37:11 PM

Q1: Here we try to get value of unknown place?

Answer is given in video below----


Here we try to get value of unknown place?

Answer can be found with help of video given Above .

Q- The present age of Sonu's mother is four times that of Sonu's age. Sonu's age ten years from now will be half of his mother's present age. what are their present ages ?
Hint - let Sonu's age = X
present age of Sonu's mother is four times that of Sonu's age = 4X
Sonu's age ten years from now = X + 10

As, Sonu's age ten years from now will be half of his mother's present age.
 X + 10 = (1/2)*4X
X +10 =2X
+ 10 = 2X - X
10= X
So,    Sonu's age = X = 10
present age of Sonu's mother is four times that of Sonu's age = 4X = 4*10= 40

Q. In a joint family, there are father, mother, 4 married sons and three unmarried daughters. Out of the sons, two have 2 daughters each, and two have a son and a daughter each. How many female members are there in the family? 
(A) 15
 (B) 12
 (C) 14
 (D) 11

General knowledge

1. किस देश की सरकारी रिपोर्ट को येलो बुक कहा जाता है?

(A) फ्रांस
B) ब्रिटेन
 (C) इटली
 (D) जर्मनी

 1. Which country's official report is called Yellow Book?

(A) France

B) Britain 
(C) Italy 
(D) Germany

2. The winner of the Asia Cup 2007 was the captain of the Indian hockey team 

(A) Dilip Tirkey
 (B) Prabhjot Singh (C) Baljit Singh 
(D) Barinder Singh

2. एशिया कप 2007 की विजेता भारतीय

हॉकी टीम के कप्तान थे 
(A) दिलीप टिर्की 
(B)प्रभजोत सिंह (C) बलजीत सिंह (D) बरिन्दर सिंह

Q3, the first in India Where was the Law University established in August 1987? 
(A) Trivandrum (B) Ahmedabad

(C) New Delhi

Q3: भारत में प्रथम विधि विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना अगस्त, 1987 में कहाँ हुई थी? 
(A) त्रिवेन्द्रम (B) अहमदाबाद
(C) नई दिल्ली 

Post updated on:  Nov 20, 2021 12:43:30 AM

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  15 WORK WARDROBE necessities for each BOSS-LADY


The simple white button down may be a business staple attributable to their oversimplified magnificence. you'll be able to try it with a pencil skirt for a a lot of skilled look, otherwise you will tuck it into dark jeans with a jacket for a a lot of casual geographical point ensemble.

Every girl ought to have one plain white button down within the closet that isn't too tight or too sheer. Check out Theory for the classic white button down. If you wish a a lot of casual look, don't be afraid to possess Associate in Nursing array of button downs in your closet. Blouses with a number of ruffles, a singular collar, or a little print will add a bit aptitude to your work apparel. I particularly love the silkiness of a white silk button down with a black collar.

2. BLACK jacket

A fitted black jacket is all you actually ought to flip any outfit into geographical point apparel. The jacket will take any casual piece - even a tee shirt or shirt - and build it look a lot of skilled.

Make sure your jacket is well fitted. If it's too massive, it'll lose that skilled feel. If you wish a less standard jacket, choose one thing that's longer (rather than bigger). this will produce the stylish outsized look while not trying frumpish.

Office tip: Keep a jacket at work. If you spill low on your shirt or have a wardrobe malfunction, you'll be able to throw on a black jacket to remain skilled and recent.

3. arm DRESS

A simple arm dress is one among the simplest work wardrobe necessities. you'll be able to wear it by itself within the summer, and therefore the sleeves maintain the expertise of the outfit. within the winter, you'll be able to throw a jacket over it to decorate it up. It's nice for days after you have an enormous meeting, as a result of it's lighter and a lot of breathable than a typical suit.

Color tip: Usually black is that the simplest choice for the geographical point. however with a brief sleeve dress, i like going for a daring solid color which will boost your daily routine. Even higher, select a dress that matches the colour palette of your company's complete. You'll begin to embody the complete and show a brand new layer of commitment to your work your style!


Pearls area unit the example female accent. A try of pearl studs or a pearl string jewelry will instantly add a layer of charm and sophistication to your look. assume Audrey actress and actress.

Did you recognize there are literally totally different colours of pearls? White pearls area unit the strongest most classic color, therefore i like to recommend every woman invest during a string of white pearls. There also are pink, black, lavender, gold, and chocolate pearls further. If you like the design of pearls, totally different colours, textures, shapes, sizes, and jewelry items area unit a good thanks to expand your accent array.


Comfort is essential, that is why we tend to love pumps for the geographical point. The platform makes them easier to run in, however you continue to get the sweetness and power that comes from the sticker. even though you don't ought to wear heels on a daily basis, it doesn't hurt to possess a go-to try of pumps for an enormous meeting or employment interview.

Black tends to match with most workplaces garments. However, we tend to additionally love a try of nude pumps as a result of they're casual and skilled at an equivalent time. Nude pumps work particularly well to decorate up work jeans.

Care tip: Clean your pumps with mineral jelly to stay them recent and shining. Get more clothes care tips here.


On those days wherever heels aren't needed or necessary, you'll need a try of skilled loafers. Ballet flats and sandals area unit typically too casual for a few offices, however loafers and oxfords will be a contented medium between expertise and luxury.

We suggest black loafers with a black or brown sole. Avoid white soles, that look too casual and might get dirty quickly. Loafers area unit a good thanks to show a number of your vogue during a subtly gorgeous way!


A hinge joint pencil skirt may be a staple within the work wardrobe necessities. A pencil skirt hugs the hips to indicate off a stunning silhouette of your lower body. It's not solely enticing and put-together, however it's additionally unbelievably horny and powerful. polish off a shirt Associate in Nursing try with heels for an outfit that appears smart on each girl.

Tip: Choose a pencil skirt that includes a little slit within the back between the legs. The slit shouldn't be overlarge (which will be unprofessional), however a little slit permits for a lot of movement therefore you don't find yourself walking awkward down the halls.


A quality holdall is sensible, polished, and chic. With legion house and pockets, you'll organize your papers and business cards whereas still owning the town along with your refined vogue.

Look for tote luggage that have a zipper pocket for your portable computer or pill. we tend to particularly love Kate Spade totes at Current shop as a result of they?re massive, light-weight, and super fashionable. Throw them over your shoulder for useful fashion!


A warm, versatile cardigan may be a must-have for each professional's closet. sort of a jacket, it will instantly dress up a a lot of casual outfit. however a cardigan may dress down a enthusiast outfit, thus it will facilitate make sure you invariably match right in with the ?business casual level? of these around you.

Besides, a cardigan is one among the foremost comforting items of covering you'll own. It's sort of a heat embrace which will inspire you to enkindle the promotion or soothe your a lot of nerve-wracking moments.

Tip: Go for a black cardigan to match along with your jeans and pencil skirt. coloured or pattern cardigans will typically be an excessive amount of for the geographic point unless the remainder of your outfit is totally neutral.


Diamonds square measure a girl's succor as a result of they intensify your facial expression and instantly draw the attention. You'll be the envy of all of your coworkers with a combine of quality diamond studs. Diamond earrings will truly create your face pop, lightness the jaw and cheekbones for a natural glow.

Tiffany & Co. is a great choice for diamond jewellery that's top quality however won't break the bank.

11. SILK shirt

Silk may be a breathable, beautiful material that may instantly upgrade any outfit. whether or not you're carrying a white silk shirt or a red silk scarf, you'll rework your ensemble instantly.

Silk is light-weight and soft, thus it's excellent for layering. you'll go from the warmth to the AC while not breaking a sweat. Plus, it doesn't produce static, thus it won't cling, crease, or wrinkle simply. you'll throw it on before work without concern regarding ironing or steaming!


Black pants square measure one among the foremost versatile things in your closet. These work wardrobe necessities will be paired with a white button down for an elegant look or a graphic tee for Associate in Nursing communicative  ensemble.

Fit tip: Tight, black ?editor? pants wont to be trending. however it's thus onerous to seek out pants that match well while not being too dishevelled or too tight. thus prefer a looser pant that crop at the ankle joint. this can be skilled whereas still relaxed and casual - and unbelievably snug too!

Want Associate in Nursing idea? Athlete's borough ankle joint Pant is loose and comfy, however it tapers from the knee down for a slim and skilled look. They're excellent for work, play, or travel.


Business casual nearly always includes dark denim. meaning a combine of dark wash, low rise jeans square measure a requirement for your work wardrobe necessities. combine with a shirt, blazer, and pumps for a commanding and trendy outfit. Or combine with a sweater for a relaxed , warm look.

Make sure your jeans match well, taper at the ankle joint, and don't have any rips or weakening. Keep skilled jeans easy in color and cut. Learn how to worry for your denim here.

14. hairdo HOLDER

This is the smallest amount expensive  - however arguably one among the foremost necessary - work wardrobe necessities. an influence hairdo is an immediate thanks to show you mean business. By propulsion the hair out of your face and slicking it back, you produce a elegant look that dominates any council chamber.

There square measure 2 widespread forms of hairdo holders currently that won't injury or crinkle hair. L. Erickson hairdo holders are made of a soft material that hold hair in situ, however the elastic doesn't injury hair. Invisible hair rings have conjointly become widespread as a result of they grip hair whereas making a fragile, elegant up-do.

Don't forget that your hair-do will fully modification the planning of your outfit!


Everything on this list has been primarily 'neutral', however don't forget to point out a bit little bit of your own vogue in there!

We love the 'accent piece.' If you're carrying an apparent shirt, throw on an outsized and audacious jewelry. If you're carrying a white shirt with a black jacket and black pencil skirt, give a contribution a combine of red shoes if you're feeling daring. (P.S. Red is taken into account a dominant color, that makes it nice if you're merchandising a product or plan.)

An accent piece shows off your vogue and confidence. You're not afraid to face move into the geographic point, as a result of you're snug with the superb girl you're.

Remember that garments square measure a illustration of you. What you wear ought to boast UN agency you are which may be a robust, industrious boss who's able to withstand the workweek!

Sonal  posted in Fashion

Post updated on:  Oct 30, 2021 3:16:49 AM

1).Ganeash chaturthi festival in India

        India is a Country Where  People have a special association with festivals.  Here we celebrate some festival or the other, that is why we also call it the country of festivals.  There is a confluence of different cultures in our country, due to which there is some festival every day.  But out of these, some of our festivals like Holi, Rakshabandhan, Diwali, Eid, Christmas etc. are such which we all celebrate together as countrymen.  One of such festivals is Ganesh Chaturthi, which we celebrate with great enthusiasm with great enthusiasm.


This Ganesh Chaturthi festival lasts for about 11 days.  Although Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated all over the country, but in western India, its glory is about to be seen aglassem.

 India is a country where people have a special association with festivals.  Here we celebrate some festival or the other, that is why we also call it the country of festivals.  There is a confluence of different cultures in our country, due to which there is some festival every day.  But out of these, some of our festivals like Holi, Rakshabandhan, Diwali, Eid, Christmas etc. are such which we all celebrate together as countrymen.  One of such festivals is Ganesh Chaturthi, which we celebrate with great enthusiasm with great enthusiasm.


 This Ganesh Chaturthi festival lasts for about 11 days.  Although Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated all over the country, but in western India, its glory is about to be seen.

 This year Ganesh Chaturthi 2021 is being organized on 10 September 2021.  People give speeches and talk about it during the celebrations of Ganesh Chaturthi.  Through this page you can read Essay on Ganesh Chaturthi in Hindi.  From this essay you can learn about when, how and why Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated and the importance of Ganesh Chaturthi.

 The festival of Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated every year in the month of August or September according to the English calendar The festival of Ganesh Chaturthi is of 11 days. On the day of Ganesh Chaturthi, people bring clay idols of Ganesha to their homes and after worshiping them for 10 days, they immerse Ganesha on the 11th day.

 The festival of Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated in different states of the country but is the biggest festival celebrated mainly in Maharashtra.  The festival begins with the installation of Ganesh idols in the house and temple on the day of Chaturthi.  People bring Ganesh ji idol to their homes with great fanfare by playing drums and drums.  A few days before Ganesh Chaturthi, the roanak starts in the markets and different types of idols of Ganesha made of clay are found.  From Ganesh Chaturthi to the next 10 days, people worship and worship Lord Ganesha in their homes and temples, singing songs, dancing, reciting mantras, performing aarti and offering modaks to Ganesha. During these days, a lot of decoration is done in the temples. Children affectionately call her Ganesha.

 Once Lord Shiva had beheaded his son Ganesha in anger.  But then the head of an elephant baby was attached to their torso.  In this way Lord Ganesha found his life again.  This day itself is celebrated as Ganesh Chaturthi. On the day of Annat Chaturdashi i.e. on the 11th day with Ganesh Visarjan, Lord Ganesha is sent off and wishes are made to come early next year.

 It is believed that on this day Lord Ganesha descends to earth to bless his devotees and whoever worships him during this time is sure to get success in whatever endeavors he makes. The way Ganesh Chaturthi was first celebrated is linked to the myths of staring at the moon during the festival.

Ayush  posted in 6260029752

Post updated on:  Oct 30, 2021 2:34:11 AM


GST Rates in 2021 ? Complete List of Goods and Service Tax Rates). There has been much debate on GST tax rates recently amongst the trading community and the GST council. The GST council of members has held several rounds of meetings to revise GST rates. The latest GST rates show a reduction of 6% to 18% in GST rates for various commodities across most categories. GST is a tax levied for the consumption of goods and services. The tax is applied by the supplier of products and services while billing customers. GST is a unified and simplified taxation system that replaced the earlier goods and services taxation system of VAT. GST is applied in a simplified structure along the supply chain Latest GST tax slab rates for goods categories.

Official GST portal publishes information on the latest GST tax slab rates. The list is large, and sellers would have to find the rates applicable to their trade. For example, if a home appliances seller wants to know the latest applicable GST rates, then the rate would have to be searched under the specific category. Below is the information based on the last published GST rates for broad categories of commodities. GST on food and beverages items Several items under the category have reduced GST rates. Those with 12% GST have 5% GST, those with 18% earlier now have 12% GST, and those with 28% have 18%GST on household goods of daily use.

New GST rates stand reduced for several items under the category of household goods. Those with earlier 18% GST now have 12% or 5% GST. Those with 28% of GST have 18%, 5%, and even nil GST rates, GST on educational items.
For several goods under the category, GST rates have been reduced from 28% to 12%,GST on medical and health items
For goods under medical and health category, GST stands reduced from 12 % to 5% and 0% for separate items, GST on agriculture items
Agriculture items with an earlier GST of 12% have 5% GST. Items under the category with earlier GST rate 18% now have reduced GST of 12%,GST on infrastructure/fuel/environment items
Items in this category with earlier GST of 28% now have GST of 18%. Items having a GST rate of 18% previously now have 12%,GST on safety and security items
No major changes have been announced from earlier prevailing rates of 18%,GST on miscellaneous items
Several items with GST of 28% now have 18% GST, those with 18% now have 12%, and those with 5% now have 0% GST.

Latest GST tax slab rates for services category

Unlike goods categories, services are categorized under the applicable tax slab rates. No major changes in GST service rates have been announced for service category items. To know the GST rate applicable, the service provider can start from nil GST rates which has the largest number of listed services under it. Several services may become eligible for 0% GST rate after submission of necessary forms or fulfillment of required processes.

Services with 0% GST rates

Comprise of a long list of service items that include: 
  • Services by autonomous bodies, government bodies, educational institutions, religious institutions, medical, and health care institutions, Services provided for charity purpose, arts or culture, charitable sports defined u/s 12 AA of IT act, Folk culture performances, performance arts, circus, dance, drama shows for which ticket is not more than Rs. 250 per person, Services rendered to a foreign diplomat, UN organizations, and the Indian consulate, Services of socially benefitting nature.

Services with 5% GST rates

Include the following services:.   Aircrafts leasing by scheduled airline for scheduled operations, Space selling for print media advertisement, Tour operator services, Book printing, newspaper printing, Natural textile yarn, natural fiber making, animal skin processing Polishing and made of precious metals and stones.

Ayush  posted in 6260029752

Post updated on:  Oct 30, 2021 2:33:11 AM

The issue of a healthy lifestyle is very serious but the people take it very lightly. Often, it is seen that the people take steps to improve their lifestyle but due to lack of determination quits in the midway.
Moreover, for a healthy lifestyle is it important that you take small and one-step at a time. Also, do not go overboard with it. Besides, this healthy lifestyle will help you in life in a lot of ways.

Habits That Keeps You Healthy

For keeping your body and mind healthy you have to follow certain rules that will help you achieve your goal. Besides, there are certain measures that will help you to stay healthy.

First of all, for being healthy you have to plan and follow a strict diet. This diet should contain all the essential minerals and vitamins required by the body. Also, eat only healthy food and avoid junk and heavily carbohydrate and fatty food.

In addition, wake up early in the morning because first of all, it's a healthy habit. Secondly, waking up early means you can get ready for your work early, spend some quality time with your family. Besides, this decides time for your sleep and sleep early because it de-stresses body. Doing exercise regularly makes your body more active and it also releases the pent-up stress from the muscles.

Avoid the mobile- the biggest drawback of this generation is that they are obsessed with their mobile phones. Moreover, these phones cause many physical and mental problem for them. So, to avoid the negative effects of mobile the usage volume of them should be reduced. Connecting with positive minds because the more you indulge with these people then less you will go to the negative side.

Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle has many benefits not only for the body but for the mind too. Also, if you follow a healthy lifestyle then you can reduce the risk of having cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis.
To sum it up, we can say that there are various benefits of living a healthy lifestyle. Also, a healthy lifestyle has many benefits to your social as well as personal life. Besides, it improves the relationships in the family. Most importantly, the person who lives a healthy lifestyle lives longer as compared to those who do not.
Moreover, a healthy lifestyle will push you to do better in life and motivate you to achieve higher targets. It usually happens that people who are extremely wealthy in terms of money often lack good health. This just proves that all the riches in the world will do you no good if there is an absence of a healthy lifestyle.
FAQs on Healthy Lifestyle

Q.1  tips to live a healthy lifestyle.
A.1 Some tips for staying healthy are eating a balanced diet, maintain weight, having enough sleep, sleep early and wake up early, use mobile lesser, etc.

Q.2 What is good health?
A.2 Good health means freedom from sickness and diseases. It is a costly gift of nature to us for living a purposeful life. Also, good health means that we can do more work than our capacity without getting tired.

SONIA  posted in Blog

Post updated on:  Oct 28, 2021 11:46:16 PM

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