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Home व्यंजन बनाने की विधियाँ, छोले आलू टिक्की चाट बनाने की विधि/ तरीका हिन्दी में Aloo Tikki Chole Chat Recipe/ Vidhi in Hindi
छोले आलू टिक्की चाट बनाने की विधि/ तरीका हिन्दी में Aloo Tikki Chole Chat Recipe/ Vidhi in Hindi

  बनाने की  Food Recipes/ Vidhi
आलू टिक्की छोला मीठी चटनी व् मसविधियाँलो के साथ Aloo Tikki Chola with Meethi Indian relish and Spices
चटपटी छोले आलू टिक्की चाट का सोच कर ही मुह में पानी आ जाता है। अगर हम छोले आलू टिक्की चाट घर पर ही बना ले तो कितना मज़ा आए। आप इसे आसानी से घर पर बना कर सबको हैरान कर सकती है। छोले आलू टिक्की चाट बनाना बहुत सरल है। तो इंतेजार किस बात का, बस इस विधि को देख कर घर में खाइए चटपटी छोले आलू टिक्की चाट
छोले आलू टिक्की चाट सामान चाहिए Ingredients for Aloo Tikki Chole Chat :-
Step one -छोले के लिए:-
500 five hundred five hundred
डेढ़ लीटर पानी।
छोला बनाने की विधि:-
कुक्कर को गैस पर तेज आँच पर रखे।
अब उसमें छोले, डेढ़ लीटर पानी
Hot Tip:- इस विधि से आपको छोले में सोडा की ज़रूरत नही पड़ती।
एक कड़ाही लीजिए और तेज आँच पर गैस पर रखे, तेल डालिए।
गरम होने पर हींग डालिए, गरम मसाला और जीरा डाले फिर प्याज़ डाले।
गैस धीमी आँच पर करे।
प्याज़ को लाल लाल भूनने दे, थोड़ी थोड़ी देर में चलाते रहे।
अब भूनी प्याज़ में लाल मिर्च पाउडर, धनिया पाउडर, हल्दी पाउडर, कटा हुआ टमाटर डाले
गैस धीमी आँच पर रखे।
कुक्कर खोलो और देखिए छोले अगर मुलायम नही हुए है तो आप 2-3 सिंटी और दे दे।

Boiled Chola उबले छोले
Boiled Chola उबले छोले
जब टमाटर भुन जाए उसमें छोले डाले, कटी हुई धनिया और मीरचा डाले और मिलाए।
Chola Masala छोला मसाला
Chola Masala छोला मसाला
अब छोले कुक्कर में डालें
गैस बंद करे और स्टीम में रहने दे।
ढक्कन खोले और छोले की खुश्बू का एहसास करे।
Chola छोलाChola छोला


आपका स्वादिष्ट छोला परोसने के लिए तैयार है ]

step 2- आलू टिक्की बनाने के लिए सामान:-
आलू टिक्की बनाने की विधि:-
आलू प्लेट में ले, उसे छीलें और हाथ से मींज ले/ कद्दूकस भी इस्तेमाल कर सकते है।
अब इसमें 1/4 छोटी चम्मच लाल मिर्च पाउडर, 1/4  छोटी चम्मच धनिया पाउडर
Hot Tip:- कोर्नफ्लौर का इस्तेमाल इसलिए करते है जिससे आलू छितरे न और टिक्की आराम से बन जाए।
अच्छे से मिलाए।
छोटी गोल गोल लोई बना ले।
अब एक तवा ले।
तेज़ आँच पर रखे।
अब चपटे करछुल से उसमें देसी घी डाले और तवे पर फैला दे।
उस पर आलू की लोईया रख दे।
Aloo Tikki on Tawa तवे पर टिक्की
Aloo Tikki on Tawa तवे पर टिक्की
आँच धीमें करे।
तवे वाली तरफ की लोई हल्की गुलाबी दिखेगी।
उन्हे पलटीए।
Tikki from different aspect aspect aspect aspect
जब दोनो तरफ लाल हो जाए तब टिक्की को हल्का सा दबाए।


जब तक टिक्की सिक रही है, आप दही मथे इसी तरह से दोनो तरफ सेके जब तक टिक्की कुरकुरी व लाल न हो।
  
छोले आलू टिक्की चाट परोसने की विधि:-

एक प्लेट में दो टिक्की रखे और उसपर छोला डालें।
आलू टिक्की Aloo Tikki
छोले टिक्की पर रखें place Chola on Tikki
अब उसपर दही और मीठी चटनी डालें।
छोले टिक्की पर दही डालकर
छोले आलू टिक्की मीठी चटनी व् मसलो के साथ Aloo Tikki Chola with Meethi Indian relish and Spices
लाल मिर्च पाउडर व् धनिया पाउडर उसपर बुर्के।
बारीक़ कटे हुए प्याज व् हरा धनिया डालें।
गरम परोसे। 
आपकी स्वादिष्ट आलू टिक्की छोले तैयार है।


Aloo Tikki Chola छोले आलू टिक्की

Preparation Time10M
Cook Time20M
Total Time30M

Thank You
By Deepika Singh

Deepika  posted in Cooking

Post updated on:  Oct 20, 2021 5:30:19 AM

1. हाल ही में खबरों में रही सेला सुरंग भारत के किस राज्य में स्थित है?



उत्तर - अरुणाचल प्रदेश

रक्षा मंत्री राजनाथ सिंह ने हाल ही में अरुणाचल प्रदेश में सेला सुरंग के अंतिम सफल विस्फोट में वर्चुअली भाग लिया। इस सुरंग का निर्माण जून, 2022 तक पूरा होने की उम्मीद है। सेला सुरंग के thirteen,000 फीट से अधिक की ऊंचाई पर दुनिया की सबसे बड़ी दो लेन वाली सुरंग होने की उम्मीद है। इसका निर्माण कार्य सीमा सड़क संगठन (BRO) द्वारा किया जा रहा है। यह सुरंग सेला दर्रे से होकर जाती है और अरुणाचल प्रदेश के माध्यम से चीन की सीमा ten की दूरी 

2. WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO WHO (Henrietta Lacks) किस देश से हैं?

उत्तर - अमेरिका


विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के प्रमुख ने दिवंगत हेनरीटा लैक्स को महानिदेशक पुरस्कार से सम्मानित किया। वह एक अमेरिकी महिला हैं जिनकी कैंसर कोशिकाओं को 1950 के दशक के दौरान उनकी जानकारी के बिना लिया गया था। उन कोशिकाओं ने विशाल वैज्ञानिक आविष्कारों की नींव प्रदान की, जिसमें कोरोनावायरस के बारे में शोध भी शामिल है। हेनरीटा लैक्स के पहले दो अक्षरों से व्युत्पन्न ?हेला? (HeLa) सेल लाइन ने मानव पेपिलोमावायरस (HPV) टीकों के विकास में मदद की।

3. जीवाणु और वायरल संक्रमण की निगरानी के लिए जैव प्रौद्योगिकी विभाग द्वारा लांच किए गए संघ का नाम क्या है?

उत्तर - One Health

जैव प्रौद्योगिकी विभाग ने हाल ही में देश में जूनोटिक और रोगजनकों के महत्वपूर्ण जीवाणु, वायरल और परजीवी संक्रमण की निगरानी के लिए ?वन हेल्थ? कंसोर्टियम लॉन्च किया है। इस परियोजना का उद्देश्य मौजूदा नैदानिक ​​परीक्षणों के उपयोग और उभरती हुई बीमारियों के प्रसार की निगरानी और समझने के लिए अतिरिक्त प्रक्रियाओं के विकास का अध्ययन करना है। वन हेल्थ कंसोर्टियम में डीबीटी-नेशनल इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ एनिमल बायोटेक्नोलॉजी, हैदराबाद के नेतृत्व में twenty seven twenty seven twenty seven twenty seven

4. हाल ही में खबरों में रहा तवांग गदेन नामग्याल ल्हात्से (तवांग मठ) किस देश में स्थित है?

उत्तर - भारत


तवांग गदेन नामग्याल ल्हात्से (तवांग मठ), जो तिब्बती बौद्ध धर्म का दूसरा सबसे बड़ा मठ है, अरुणाचल प्रदेश के तवांग जिले में स्थित है। भारत ने, उपराष्ट्रपति एम. वेंकैया नायडू की हालिया अरुणाचल प्रदेश यात्रा पर चीन की आपत्ति को खारिज कर दिया है। चीन भारतीय नेताओं के अरुणाचल प्रदेश के दौरे को दक्षिण तिब्बत का हिस्सा बताते हुए आपत्ति जताता रहा है। तवांग भारत के पूर्वोत्तर क्षेत्र में एक रणनीतिक प्रवेश प्रदान करता है और तिब्बत और ब्रह्मपुत्र घाटी के बीच गलियारे में एक महत्वपूर्ण बिंदु है।

5. राष्ट्रपति तटरक्षक पदक किस सशस्त्र बल को प्रदान किया जाता है?

उत्तर- तटरक्षक बल



भारत के राष्ट्रपति राम नाथ कोविंद ने भारतीय तटरक्षक कर्मियों को राष्ट्रपति तटरक्षक पदक और तटरक्षक पदक से सम्मानित किया है। twenty six twenty six, 1990 से हर साल गणतंत्र दिवस और स्वतंत्रता दिवस पर भारतीय तटरक्षक बल के कर्मियों को पुरस्कार दिए जा रहे हैं।

6. IPL 2021 के फाइनल मैच का ?मैन ऑफ द मैच (Man Of the Match)? का खिताब किसे मिला ?

उत्तर - फाफ डुप्लेसिस


Important Points

फाफ डुप्लेसिस चेन्नई सुपर किंग्स (CSK) के खिलाड़ी eighty six और इन्होंने फाइनल मैच eighty six eighty six eighty six (59गेंदों) में eighty six है.
IPL 2021 फाइनल फाफ डुप्लेसिस का 100वां मैच रहा है.
IPL 2021 prime GK ?
IPL 2021 का आयोजन- भारत और UAE
IPL 2021 का संस्करण- 14वां
IPL 2021 की विजेता- चेन्नई सुपरकिंग्स (CSK) /उपविजेता- कोलकाता नाईट राइडर्स
IPL 2021 ऑरेंज कैप विजेता- ऋतुराज गायकवाड़
IPL 2021 पर्पल कैप विजेता- हर्षल पटेल

7. ?BCCI? ने किसे टीम इंडिया के नए मुख्य कोच (Head coach) नियुक्त किया है ?

उत्तर. - राहुल द्रविड
Important Points

रवि शास्त्री के बाद भारत के पूर्व दिग्गज बल्लेबाज राहुल द्रविड़ को टीम इंडिया का नया हेड कोच नियुक्त किया गया है.
BCCI
भारत में क्रिकेट मैच BCCI रेगुलेट करता है.
Board of management for Cricket in Asian country
भारतीय क्रिकेट नियंत्रण बोर्ड
स्थापना - 1928
मुख्यालय - मुंबई
अध्यक्ष - सौरभ गांगुली
सचिव - जय शाह


अनुभवी खिलाड़ियों में से एक हैं, 1996 से वे इसके नियमित सदस्य रहें हैं। अक्टूबर 2005 में वे भारतीय क्रिकेट टीम के कप्तान के रूप में नियुक्त किये गए और सितम्बर 2007 में उन्होंने अपने इस पद से इस्तीफा दे दिया। १६ साल तक भारत का प्रतिनिधित्व करते रहने के बाद उन्होंने वर्ष २०१२ के मार्च में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय और राष्ट्रीय क्रिकेट के सभी फॉर्मैट से सन्यास ले लिया।

राहुल द्रविड़अनुभवी खिलाड़ियों में से एक हैं, 1996 से वे इसके नियमित सदस्य रहें हैं। अक्टूबर 2005 में वे भारतीय क्रिकेट टीम के कप्तान के रूप में नियुक्त किये गए और सितम्बर 2007 में उन्होंने अपने इस पद से इस्तीफा दे दिया। १६ साल तक भारत का प्रतिनिधित्व करते रहने के बाद उन्होंने वर्ष २०१२ के मार्च में अंतर्राष्ट्रीय और राष्ट्रीय क्रिकेट के सभी फॉर्मैट से सन्यास ले लिया।

राहुल द्रविड़


राहुल द्रविड़ GQ मेन ऑफ़ द ईयर 2012 अवॉर्ड्स के दौरान

व्यक्तिगत जानकारी 

पूरा नाम - राहुल शरद द्रविड़
जन्म.  - eleven eleven 1973 (आयु 48)
इंदौर, मध्य प्रदेश, भारत
उपनाम   - द वॉल, द ग्रेट वॉल, जैमी मिस्टर डिपेंडेबल 

कद.-1.78 seventy eight (5 फीट ten इंच)

बल्लेबाजी की शैली - दाहिने हाथ से बल्लेबाजी

गेंदबाजी की शैली - राइट आर्म ऑफ़ स्पिन

भूमिका  - बल्लेबाज़ और वैकल्पिक विकेटकीपर


Post updated on:  Oct 20, 2021 5:28:20 AM

The word 'advertisement' is made up of 'V' and 'Memo'.  'V' means 'Special' and 'Memorandum' means information.  Hence, the meaning of advertisement is 'specific information'.  In modern society 'advertisement' is known as a medium for promoting business.

 William Welbaker Advertising is a means of disseminating information that is paid for and signed by a business center or organization and seeks to increase the likelihood that those who have access to this information will act or behave as the advertiser wishes. The New  Encyclopdia Britannica: Advertisement is a form of communication intended to promote a product or work, to influence public opinion, to gain political support, to advance a specific cause, or to elicit some desired response by the advertiser.  The words to understand, advertise, request etc. have been given as synonyms of.

 Advertising functions

 Following are the functions of advertisement:-

 1. Reporting of new goods and services.

 2. To draw the attention of people towards something by stating its usefulness and superiority.

 3. To generate interest and confidence in the consumers about the goods.

 4. Influencing the memory of the consumers.

 5. To increase consumer demand by giving information about special discounts etc.

 6. Motivation to accept, adopt and buy the commodity.

 7. Advertisement gives comparative information about the products of other product companies.

 8. Provides stability to the product companies in the market.

 Ad typesEdit

 Despite all the criticism, advertising is an effective medium to improve our standard of living and increase production.  Today we have come to the fringes of the advertising age.  Public conscious artistic advertising should also be given priority, not considering advertising as a limited objective of the art of selling or promoting the product produced.

 In today's time, many forms of advertising come in front of us.  They can be placed in the following types.

 Persuasive advertisement

 Through advertising means to reach the public or the consumer, attract them, entice them, the prestige of the product and its value is established.  This type of advertisement is broadcast by the manufacturer when its objective is to establish the name of its item in the minds of the customers and it is expected that the customer will buy it.  Advertising seeks to persuade specific consumers for its purpose on the basis of various mediums.

 Informative advertisement

 This type of advertisement comes in the form of dissemination of information and commercial expression.  Along with this, the purpose of these advertisements is to educate the general public, to raise the standard of living, cultural intelligence and spiritual progress.  Creates awareness by providing information for the betterment of the general public in the areas of community development, improvement, international harmony, wildlife protection, traffic safety etc.

 Institutional advertising

 Institutional advertisements are published and promoted by commercial institutions. Large industry groups, international or national level companies, etc., form public opinion related to national interest by presenting advertisements in the form of institutions.  The subject matter of the advertisement is strictly related to the welfare of the people.  But it also includes self-advertising.

Ayush  posted in Fashion

Post updated on:  Oct 16, 2021 10:19:39 AM

Olympiad preparation for Mathematics

Fraction of the number is the best way to show the part that are to separated from the whole parts.
Profit and Loss influences the business plan. When ever the business is not getting more profit, then the system of management studies the causes of the loss or ways of the marketing of the others competitive companies. When the person who works hard for the project, is not trying to get better income, then the person didn't try to know about the way to handle the client. When the person is purchasing the property at high rate, and selling the house or property at very low price, then the man is not getting profit.

Question based on polygon 







Questions - What is the whole number?

Basically the whole numbers are the numbers starting from the zero. The numbers are as follows 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and so on. 



Try to get answers by your own-

Question- Select the correct statement.

A)  Renuka had 1556 cm long cloth. She wants to cut 13 m 50 cm from it. The length of cloth left with her will be 2.06 m.

(B) Renu got Rs 500 and spent on stationery items and 350 on furniture. The amount left with Rita is 331.

(C) Pramila bought  250 g capsicums, 700 g onions, 100 g gingers, 600 g potatoes and 300 g apple. The total weight of the vegetables she bought is 2.350 kg.

Q- The present age of Aditya's mother is four times that of Aditya's age. Aditya's age ten years from now will be half of his mother's present age. what are their present ages ?
Hint - let Aditya's age = X
present age of Aditya's mother is four times that of Aditya's age = 4X
Aditya's age ten years from now = X + 10

As, Aditya's age ten years from now will be half of his mother's present age.
 X + 10 = (1/2)*4X
X +10 =2X
+ 10 = 2X - X
10= X
So,    Aditya's age = X = 10
present age of Aditya's mother is four times that of Aditya's age = 4X = 4*10= 40

Try to solve it by own.

Q - The sum of three consecutive multiple of 5 is 330. Find the multiples. 
Hint - Let first number is X
Second number is X+5
Third number is X+10
X+X+5+X+10 =330
3X=330-15=315
X=315/3=105
first number is X =105
Second number is X+5=110
Third number is X+10=115

Q -  The measures of two angles of a quadrilateral are 135? and 45?. The remaining two angles are equal. Find the measure of each of the angle ?

Hint -  measures of two angles of a quadrilateral are 135 and 45.
 The remaining two angles are equal - X

 Q. Two coins are tossed simultaneousiy Find the probability of setting. i) Two heads ii) one head iii) no head.

Q. Construct a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB=4.2cm. BC = 4.8cm, CD=6.3cm, AD=3.1cm and BD=6.7 cm.

Q. Study the following statements carefully and find the correct statement.
Statement 1: Additive identity does not exist in natural numbers.
Statement 2: Sandeep distributes 4 boxes of sweets. If each box comprises 6 chocolates and 10 candies, then there are 64 sweets in 4 boxes,

(A) Both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are true.
(B) Statement-1 is true but Statement-2 is false.
(C) Statement-1 is false but Statement-2 is true.
(D) Both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are false.

Q. State 'T' for true and 'F' for false.

I.Sum of two whole numbers is always less than their product.

II. Whole numbers are not closed under multiplication.

III. If a whole number is divided by another whole number which is greater than the first one, then the quotient is not equal to zero

Hint - I. True for 7*0= 0, 0+7= 7

(Q)Find the difference of the square of two consecutive numbers 63 and 64 using formula.

(Q)State whether it is  the correct statement or not.

 Yashika has to cover a distance of 20 km 50 m. She walked 1 km and went by bus for 15 km and hired an auto for rest of the distance. The distance she covered by auto is 4.05 km.


(Q) Fill in the blanks.

(1) The product of any two whole numbers is a __________ number.

(ii) If a and b are any two whole numbers and b < a, then a - b is a _________  number.

(iii) The product of a whole number and zero is ______________

(iv) The product of a whole number and  one is ____________

Ans.  (1)whole (ii)whole (iii) zero (iv) whole number or number it self

Try to get answer.

(Q) If husband is called wife, wife is called grandfather, grandfather is called grandmother, grandmother is called maternal grandmother, maternal grandmother is called maternal grandfather, maternal grandfather is called maternal uncle and maternal uncle is called maternal aunt, then what will the father of the mother be called? 

(A) Maternal grandmother
 (B) Maternal uncle 
(C) Maternal grandfather
 (D) Maternal aunt

Q. Raj Kumar went to a craft fair where he spent a total of 16.00. He spent rupees 6.00 on admission and went to 8 chair. He spent the same amount of money (m) at each table. The given expression can be used to find how much money he spent at each table. 16 = 6 + 8 m. Find money spent on each chair ?

Answer -
  He has total money - 16.
He spent rupees 6.00 on admission 
and went to 8 chair. 
He spent the same amount of money (m) at each table.
same amount of money= X
 16= 6+ 8 X
16-6= 8X
10\8= X
X= 1.25( ans)

Q. In a class of 35 students, Kunal is placed seventh from the bottom whereas Sonali is placed ninth from the top. Pulkit is placed exactly in between the two. What is Kunal's position from Pulkit? 

(A) 9th
(B) 10th 
(C) 11th
 (D) 13th

Q. Find the value using distributive property.
728 x 102
Ans- 
728(100+2)= 728*100+ 728*2
= 72800 + 1456

Q. The product of two numbers is -5/12. If one of the numbers is 18. Find the other.
Hint -
First number - X
Second number - 18
X * 18 =  -5/12,
X = - ( 5/12) / 18

Q. Study the following statements carefully and select the correct option.

Statement-1 : Place value of a digit increases by 10 times as the digit moves from the right to the left place by place.

 Statement-2: Any number of zeroes placed to the right of the decimal part of a number does not change the value of the num!

(A) Both Statement-1 and Star are true.

(B) Statement-1 is true but s is false.

(C) Statement-1 is false but Statement-2 is true.
(D) Both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are false.

Post updated on:  Oct 13, 2021 4:44:53 AM

Friction-

Friction is the force that tries to stop the motion of the body. Friction in the force that is generated when a body is sliding over another body. Now today we are going to talk about the application of friction. The force of friction is unwanted thing in case of any types of construction.

                           When we place a block on the surface,  and if we apply the force on the bottom of the block. The block will try to move in forward direction. There is an opposite and opposing force present between the block and the surface that will try to restrict the movement of the block, that force is known as force of friction. 


Weight  = (W)
Angel of inclination =  ($ )
Reaction of box = ( R)
Force of Friction = (F)
Coefficient of friction  = (Cf) 

Force of friction (F)  = (Cf) * Reaction
  
F = (Cf) * R 

Types of Friction- 

There are two types of friction, first one is static friction and second one is dynamic friction. 

I) Static Friction

Whenever the body is under the condition of eqillbrium or rest , the body experiencing a force of Friction on that time is considered as the static friction.
 The static friction is the friction, that is experienced by the body when it is in condition of rest the static. 

ii) Dynamic Friction

 The dynamic friction is the friction that is experienced by the body when the body is in condition of motion, that friction is also known as kinetic friction. There are two types of dynamic friction, first one is sliding friction and second one is rolling friction. When one body slides over the another body then the friction generated between the both the bodies is known as sliding friction. When the body roll over the another body then the friction generated between the two bodies is known as a rolling friction.

Numerical on friction

A box having weight of 250 N is putting on surface of the table. The coefficient of friction is 0.3. Find value of the force, which may be able to move the box, while acting at angle of  (  30 )  with the  horizontal surface.

Solution -

Given, weight (W)= 250 N
coefficient of friction (Cf) = 0.3
Angel of inclination =  ($) = (  35)  
Force of Friction = (F)
Let, Force which is able to move box =( Fr)
Reaction of box = ( R)

Reaction to the box (R ) = weight of box (W)



By resolving the force in x- axis, 

F  =  Fr * Cos ($ ) 
    = Fr * Cos (30 ) 
    = (0 .866 ) Fr  
                                        _______ equation (1) 

By resolving the force in y- axis, 

R   =  W -  Fr  * (Sin $ ) 
     =  W -  Fr  * (Sin 30  ) 
     = 250   -  Fr *(0 .5).   _______ equation (2)


Also we know that
Force of friction (F)  = (Cf) * reaction
F = (Cf)* R 

Using equation 1 & 2,

 (0 .866 ) Fr  = (Cf) * {250   -  Fr * (0 .5)}

(0 .866 ) Fr  = ( .3) * {250   -  Fr * (0 .5)}

By solving the equation , we get

Fr = 73 N (Ans) 


Law of Friction - 

The law of friction states that the friction does not depend upon the area of contact between the body and the surface. It depends upon the roughness of surface. The force of friction is equal to the force  generated by the body in the perpendicular direction. In other word, we can say that the force of friction is equal to the normal reaction of the body that is perpendicular to the surface .

 
Application of  Friction -

Generally the force of friction is considered to be unwanted thing. The friction is considered as the force which is not required in our day to day life. There are various applications of friction. First one is the friction can be used in ladder to climb on the ladder.

1) Ladder Friction -

 In case of ladder friction, the friction helps to climb up on the ladder from bottom to the roof of the room. Due to the ladder,  there is normal reaction acting on the ladder by the wall. The normal reaction is also generated near  the bottom of the ladder. 





F1 = frictional force at bottom of ladder,
F2 = frictional force at top of ladder,

R1 = Normal reaction between the ladder and floor, it is present at bottom of ladder,

R2 = Normal reaction between ladder and wall , it is present at the top of ladder,


2) Screw Friction -

Second use of the friction is  screw friction. In case of the screw friction, the object lifted  with the help of the screw.  

3) Wedge Friction -

The third use or application of frictional force is wedge friction. Wedge is also the example of the use of the friction. Actually the wedge is the triangular  shape object. Wedge is the object which can be used in putting the heavy object in correct position. It can be also used to lift the object.


Here, 

the body is having weight as (W).

Force tries to lift the body in upward direction is shown as ( F ).
The force of Friction depends on the roughness of the surface on which  the body is moving. If the surface of the body is more rough, then the magnitude of the force of friction is considerably more than the other surface, which is less rough.

System of force -       Force is the external agency that tries to  change the respective dimensions of the object. There are two different things, first one is magnitude and second one is the direction. Force is expressed in terms of magnitude and direction.  On accounting it's definition, it is the external agent responsible for change of the respective dimensions of the body. Generally the direction of force illustrates the details of different directions of the body, where the force is applied. The direction of the force awakens the way by which the body is deformed.  

If the line of action of two or more  forces are on the same plane then it is known as the Coplanar forces. If the line of action of two forces are parallel to each other, then there are known as parallel forces. If the line of action of more than one force is on the same line, then that system of  forces is called Collinear forces. The force which is produced due to  the surface between the two body, is called the contact force. There are many more types of contact force  force -1) Muscular force 2) Frictional forces. There are many more types of non- contact force  force -
1)Gravitational force  
2) Magnetic forces 
The force which is produced due to  the non - surface between the two body, is called the contact force.



The influences of the force  -

1) The force can easily change the direction of the body having some motion in it.
2) The force can stop the body by the application of the force on the body.
3) The force helps to change the speed of the body, which is having some motion in it.
4) The force can easily change the state of the body.



Shailendra  posted in Technical

Post updated on:  Oct 10, 2021 7:55:12 AM

Yoga is essentially a very subtle science based physical, mental and spiritual discipline, which focuses on bringing harmony between mind and body.  In this article you will learn about the origin of yoga, the development of yoga in India and the world, the history of yoga, the basic formula and types of yoga practice.

 Yoga is an art and model to lead a healthy life.  The word 'yoga' is derived from Sanskrit 'yuj', which means 'to join' or 'to unite' (yoke or to unite).   According to modern scientists, the person who experiences the oneness of his existence in the universe is called yoga, while practicing it one who progresses towards liberation, nirvana or moksha is called a yogi.  Let us know in detail about the history of Yoga.

It is mentioned in Rigveda.   Many things have been written about yoga in the Upanishads, so the exact information about the development of yoga is not available.  The origins of hatha yoga texts date back to around the 11th century.

Yoga was developed in western countries including India by many yoga gurus of India.   Yoga in Indian tradition is much more than physical exercise.  It is a meditative and spiritual core.  Yoga is considered one of the six major orthodox schools in Hinduism that has its own science and philosophy.  It is also closer to the Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

This is evident from the seals of the Indus Valley Civilization.  In Yoga Vidya, Shiva is considered to be the first Yogi or Adiyogi and the first Guru or Adi Guru.

Yoga works on a body, mind, emotion and energy level.  Yoga is classified into four types.  The first is Karma Yoga, where we use the body.  Third Jnana Yoga, where we use the mind.  Fourth Kriya Yoga, where we harness energy.  All ancient commentators on yoga have emphasized that it is necessary to do it under the guidance of a yoga guru.  

 India has various social customs and rituals, the land of yoga, love for ecological balance, tolerance towards other systems of thought and a compassionate attitude towards all creation.  


Patanjali has described the eight limbs of yoga in his book called Yoga Sutras which are known as Ashtanga.  

 yama

 Tells about the moral values ​​of life and how to live life.  This is to emphasize honesty and integrity.  It teaches us to treat others well and follow the path of non-violence, truth and self-control.

 Rule

 Teaches to be reflective and thoughtful.  It teaches us discipline and spirituality.  Niyama is a path where you study yourself, stay clean, contented and have faith in God.

 Posture

 Apart from this, it teaches meditation, meditation and self-centeredness.

 Pranayama

 Breath control is a process where you consciously inhale and through exhalation engage the mind, body and spirit.  Breath is the pranic energy that makes you powerful and energetic.

 withdrawal

 It is when we look within ourselves and come to know more about ourselves.  We consciously try to stay away from external forces and focus on removing our inner stimuli from outside stimuli.

 an assumption

 Learning to focus on a single energy center by focusing on a single object, thought or mantra.  Our mind is full of many thoughts.  It teaches them to be able to control and keep their mind calm.

 Attention

 In this the mind is made aware and the thoughts disturbing the mind are reduced.  The strength and stamina built from the back limbs of yoga helps with meditation.

Princygupta  posted in Others

Post updated on:  Oct 6, 2021 9:06:15 AM

As the name signifies, housekeeping means "up keeping of the house".  The housekeeping department is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance and the aesthetic upkeep to the property. The concept of housekeeping is simplistic but when one considers maintaining a house of several rooms and numerous public areas the tasks becomes gigantic. It takes a well-organized approach and technical understanding to enable housekeeping to cope with the volume of work. This department is also responsible for every aspects of guest room i.e. to provide all the required guest supplies and materials according to the guest request during their stay. 


A hotel survives on the sale of rooms, food, beverages, and other minor services such as the laundry, health club and so on. The sale of rooms constitutes a minimum of 50% of these sales. Thus, the major part of a hotel's profit comes from room sales, because a room once construct can be sold over and over again.



Functions of housekeeping:  Basic functions of housekeeping department are:
1. Cleaning rooms and public area
2. Bed making
3. Linen management /laundry service
4. Pest control 
5. Key control
6. Safety & Security 
7. Interior decoration
8. Room maintenance
Importance of housekeeping: Housekeeping is a critical part of any hotel industry. Strict cleanliness is an expected standard that has to be met. It's easy to assume that housekeeping only involves someone coming in to change the bedding and bring fresh towels. However, a housekeeper's duty is more than that and includes checking on appliances, bringing items to guests as they need them and making sure guests are comfortable. In hotels, the major part of revenue comes from the rooms, so housekeeping keep cleaning as a top concern, with that it also concentrate on:
Comfort
Cleanliness and hygiene
Privacy 
Safety & security
D'cor
With the world's focus on recycling and conservation, the hotel industry must change some of its habits. In addition, becoming more consumers focused, like offering a directory of lost and found items online, will set a hotel apart from the rest of the industry. Promoting a spirit of innovation within the housekeeping departments will assist the hotel industry in overcoming challenges and preparing it for smooth transitions to new trends and customer expectations. With the many people traveling for vacations, business or visiting family and friends, it is vital that hotels distinguish themselves from one another. Turning the hotel into a destination, rather than merely a place to stay, through exceptional housekeeping and hospitality can provide a competitive advantage  in the hotel industry.

ScopeThe role of a housekeeper has changed rapidly with the changing times. Apart from the cleaning, maintenance and aesthetic upkeep of the property, the housekeeping system in itself has been computerized. A majority of the staff who were earlier illiterate are now diploma/degree holders with technical qualifications, all fluent in English and working on guest floors and doing basic jobs in the hospitality industry. Housekeeping control room jobs, too, which were earlier manual, are now completely computerized. 

Nowadays rooms, amenities and supplies are also modified from hotel to hotel. Modern rooms are spacious with tasteful decor and are well-equipped with many facilities, which previously were found only in the suites.  Apart from the changing room scene, housekeepers today are well-versed, not only with their jobs, but also at multi-tasking. Besides the main housekeeping cleaning operations,

They also take care of 
  • horticulture,
  • security, 
  • laundry operations,
  • interiors, 
  • quality control, 
  • budget
  • cost control, 

And with the above mentioned leading roles, housekeeper also act as supporting column for 
  • Purchasing for exclusive items for special occasions. 
  • Revenue management
  • HR management(recruitment and training)

Housekeeping department-working towards customer delight
  • Customer satisfaction has to be on everyone's mind as they begin the work day
  • Customer satisfaction is more than just a smile
  • Guest satisfaction improves when you know your customer/ their needs
  • Improve customer satisfaction by addressing customer calls/ complaints promptly/ quickly
  • Train your staff on improving customer service (hand written notes, service messages)
  • Recognize loyal/ repeat customers (know your customer)
  • Respect your customer/ customer needs
  • Provide personalized service
  • Track, analyze and report on customer satisfaction

Responsibilities of the housekeeping department
  • To achieve the maximum possible efficiency in ensuring the care and comfort of guests and in the smooth running of the department.
  • To establish a welcoming atmosphere and ensure courteous, reliable service from all staff of the department.
  • To ensure a general standard of cleanliness and general upkeep in all the areas for which the department is responsible.
  • To provide linen in rooms, restaurants, banquet halls, conference venues, and health clubs and so on, as well as maintain inventory for the same.
  • To provide uniforms for all the staff and maintain adequate inventories for the same.
  • To cater to the laundering requirements of hotel linen, staff uniforms, and guest clothing.
  • To provide and maintain the floral decorations and maintain the landscaped areas of the hotel.
  • To select the right contractors and ensure that the quality of the work is maintained as at the onset of business. To coordinate the renovation and refurnishing of the property as and when, in consultation with the management and with interior designers.
  • To coordinate with the purchase department for the procurement of guest supplies, cleaning agents, equipment, fabric, carpets and other items used in the hotel.
  • To deal with lost and found articles.
  • To ensure training, control, and supervision of all staff attached to the department.
  • To establish a good working relationship with other departments.
  • To ensure that safety and security regulations are made known to all staff of the department.
  • To keep the general manager informed of all matters requiring attention.



Post updated on:  Sep 30, 2021 9:18:17 PM

What is the meaning of combustion?

Combustion is the process of burning of any thing in presence of oxygen.

What are the essential things for the combustion?

The essential things for the combustion are following -
1) the thing that should burn.
2) the ignition temperature of the body should be achieved.
3) supporter of the combustion.

Combustion and necessary condition

There are three major types of flame of the candle.

1) Inner zone
2) Middle zone
3) Outermost zone

Various types of zones of  flame of candle


दहन का क्या अर्थ है?

ऑक्सीजन की उपस्थिति में किसी भी वस्तु के जलने की प्रक्रिया दहन है। 

दहन के लिए आवश्यक चीजें क्या हैं?

दहन के लिए आवश्यक चीजें हैं -
1) वह चीज जो जलनी चाहिए।
2) शरीर के ज्वलन तापमान को प्राप्त किया जाना चाहिए l

What is the meaning of ignition temperature of combustion?

The lowest  temperature which is essential for the combustion of the body, is called as the ignition temperature of the body.

There are three types of combustion -

1) Spontaneous combustion
2) Rapid combustion
3) Explosion combustion

दहन के प्रज्वलन तापमान का क्या अर्थ है? 

शरीर के दहन के लिए आवश्यक न्यूनतम तापमान को शरीर का प्रज्वलन तापमान कहा जाता है। 

तीन प्रकार के होते हैं दहन 
१) स्वतःस्फूर्त दहन
२) तीव्र दहन
३) विस्फोट

What is the luminous zone of the flame?

 It is the outermost part of the flame. In this zone, the flame occurs really. This is the region where the combustion take place at the large amount. This region of the flame is yellow in colour and this is not blue in colour.

Rapid combustion - The combustion which takes place at a high speed, and provide heat energy and light energy, that combustion is called rapid combustion.

Spontaneous combustion - Spontaneous combustion is the combustion in which the combustion takes place for small timing.

Explosion combustion - The combustion in which the combustion takes places very fastly. Such type of the combustion takes place in case of burning of crackers.

The principles of the fire extinguishers are following -

1) The combustible thing that is burning, should be removed from the place of combustion. 
2) the ignition temperature of the body should be lowered.
3) supporter of the combustion should be covered by anything correctly.

The working of the fire extinguishers is to cover the area to stop fire. Carbon dioxide is used to stop burning of the things. Basically the combustible materials is covered wholly by carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is a gas which don't support the combustion. So, to Stop combustion, carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguisher.

Shailendra  posted in Science

Post updated on:  Sep 30, 2021 9:07:03 PM


The earth is covered by various types of the plants. These are the foundation of the life on the earth. There are several types of the plants. Some of them are used in medical industry, some of them are used in beuty industry, some of them are used in food industries. The link between the human being and environment is plant. This is the only link which helps to sustain life on the earth.

                       There are many kinds of plants on the earth.  Some of them are  small, some of them are big, some  of them are just equal to the hight of the man. The colour of the plants are also different from each other. Some of the plants are red in colour, some of the plants are yellow in colour.  

                         On the basis of the height of the plants, the plants are classified in three major groups.

These are trees, herbs and shrubs, climbers and creepers. The trees are the plants which are having longest height. These plants have thick stem. Example of the trees are Mango and coconut etc.

     





            
 Shrubs are the plants which is not having much height as the trees have. These are the plants having less height. Rose, Tulsi etc.















Herbs are the plants which is not having much height as the Shrubs have. These are the plants having less height. Wheat, Rice, onion, coriander etc.

Climbers

          There are several types of plants. Some of the plants are with weak stem. They generally take support of neighbouring trees to climb. These type of plants are called climbers. eg. Pea, Moneyplant.



Creepers -

There are several types of plants in which the stem is very weak. Such plants with weak stem, they cannot stand upright. These plants spread on the ground are called creepers. Example of such plants is cucumber etc.





There are several types of good uses of the plants. Plant provide us various types of the things.

1) The plants give us timber for furniture, bridges.
2) The plant give us paper. The bamboo and grass are used for making papers.
3) Some plants are used as medicine in diseases like cold. Example Tulsi, Lemongrass, and Neem.
4) Some plants used to increase taste of food. Example - Cumin, Clove.
5) Plants give oxygen during photosynthesis which is used by human being.

Technology of hybridisation - Technology is used for making the new plant. The technology is known as hybridisation.

There are two types of system in the plants. First one is the root system and second one is stem system.

Root system in the plants -



There are two types of the root system of the  plants. Tap root .





Stem system of the plants - 
The upper part of the plants are known as the stem system of the plants. These contain the following parts - seed, flower, leaves, fruit of the plants.

   


Leaf system in the plants - 
The important parts of the leaves of the plants are midrib, vein, parellel venination.


Flower



Leaf

Germination in the Seeds -


Weeds



Some of the plants grow in water are called as aquatic plant. Example - Lotus etc.

Shailendra  posted in Science

Post updated on:  Sep 24, 2021 2:57:10 AM

                        
                        Yeast Doughnuts-
A doughnut is a type of fried dough confectionary or dessert food .Doughnuts are usually deep fried from  a flour dough and typically either ring shaped or without a hole and often filled.
 
Used Material: ?
Ingredients
Quantity(gms.)
Flour
550
Sugar
55
Shortening
55
Salt
8.25
Milk Powder
16.5
Yeast
27.5
Bread Improver
5.5
Vanilla essence
2.75
Egg
82.5
Water
247.5
Nutmeg
1.65
 

Method: -
1.    Sift together the flour and milk powder.
2.    Make a ferment with some of the flour mixture all the yeast, water and set aside for 10-15 minutes.
3.    Add the ferment to the remaining flour along with the egg and remaining ingredients adding water for just consistency.
4.    Allow fermenting.
5.    Knock back and allow to proof.
6.    Sheet the dough and cut with a doughnut cutter and allow to proof.
7.    Fry in hot oil till golden brown.
 

Post updated on:  Sep 24, 2021 2:49:52 AM

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Post updated on:  Sep 21, 2021 8:31:32 PM

Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services).Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit.Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.
The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owners.The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management, and information technology management.[citation needed]

Owners may manage their businesses themselves, or employ managers to do so for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managers administer three primary components of the business' value: financial resources, capital (tangible resources), and human resources. These resources are administered in at least six functional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or service production, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources.                               Commercial law.                                                     

detailed and well-established body of rules that evolved over a very long period of time applies to commercial transactions. The need to regulate trade and commerce and resolve business disputes helped shape the creation of law and courts. The Code of Hammurabi dates back to about 1772 BC for example and contains provisions that relate, among other matters, to shipping costs and dealings between merchants and brokers.[34] The word "corporation" derives from the Latin corpus, meaning body, and the Maurya Empire in Iron-Age India accorded legal rights to business entities.[35]
In many countries, it is difficult to compile all the laws that can affect a business into a single reference source. Laws can govern the treatment of labour and employee relations, worker protection and safety, discrimination on the basis of age, gender, disability, race, and in some jurisdictions, sexual orientation, and the minimum wage, as well as unions, worker compensation, and working hours and leave.
Some specialized businesses may also require licenses, either due to laws governing entry into certain trades, occupations or professions, that require special education or to raise revenue for local governments. Professions that require special licenses include law, medicine, piloting aircraft, selling liquor, radio broadcasting, selling investment securities, selling used cars, and roofing. Local jurisdictions may also require special licenses and ta ongoing special regulation, for example, public utilities, investment securities, banking, insurance, broadcasting, aviation, and health care providers. Environmental regulations are also very complex and can affect many businesses.     

Capital

Businesses that have gone public are subject to regulations concerning their internal governance, such as how executive officers' compensation is determined, and when and how information is disclosed to shareholders and to the public. In the United States, these regulations are primarily implemented and enforced by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Other western nations have comparable regulatory bodies. The regulations are implemented and enforced by the China Securities Regulation Commission (CSR) in China. In Singapore, the regulatory authority is the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), and in Hong Kong, it is the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).
The proliferation and increasing complexity of the laws governing business have forced increasing specialization in corporate law. It is not unheard of for certain kinds of corporate transactions to require a team of five to ten attorneys due to sprawling regulation. Commercial law spans general corporate law, employment and labor law, health-care law, securities law, mergers and acquisitions, tax law, employee benefit plans, food and drug regulation, intellectual property law on copyrights, patents, trademarks, telecommunications law, and financing.
Other types of capital sourcing include crowdsourcing on the Internet, venture capital, bank loans, and debentures.

Ayush  posted in 6260029752

Post updated on:  Sep 11, 2021 9:54:55 PM

What Is Motivation ?
Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behavior. It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.

What exactly lies behind the motivations for why we act?
Psychologists have proposed different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory, and humanistic theory (such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs). The reality is that there are many different forces that guide and direct our motivations. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.

There are many different uses for motivation. It serves as a guiding force for all human behavior, but understanding how it works and the factors that may impact it can be important in a number of ways. Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals Help people take action Encourage people to engage in health-oriented behavior Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behavior such as risk-taking and addiction Help people feel more in control of their lives Improve overall well-being and happiness.Potential Pitfalls History of Motivation What Is Motivation? Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented .

It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term "motivation" is frequently used to describe why a person does something. It is the driving force behind human actions. Motivation doesn't just refer to the factors that activate it also involves the factors that direct and maintain these goal-directed actions (though such motives are rarely directly observable). As a result, we often have to infer the reasons why people do the things that they do based on observaba What exactly lies behind the motivations for why we act? Psychologists have proposed different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory, and humanistic theory (such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs). The reality is that there are many different forces that guide and direct our motivations. Get Advice From The Mind Podcast Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Mind Podcast shares an exercise you can use to help you perform your best. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic.

Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification of Is It Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation? Uses There are many different uses for motivation. It serves as a guiding force for all human behavior, but understanding how it works and the factors that may impact it can be important in a number of ways. Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals Help people take action Encourage people to engage in health-oriented behavior Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behavior such as risk-taking and addiction Help people feel more in control of their lives Improve overall well-being and happiness Impact Anyone who has ever had a goal (like wanting to lose 20 pounds or run a marathon) probably immediately that simply having the desire to accomplish something is not enough. Achieving such a goal requires the ability to persist through obstacles and endurance to keep going in spite of difficulties.

There are three major components of motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist. An example of persistence would be taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources. Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal.one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions, and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class. The first student lacks intensity, while the second pursues their educational goals with greater intensity. Components of Motivation Potential Pitfalls History of Motivation What Is Motivation? Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented . It is what causes you to act, it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term "motivation" is frequently used to describe why a person does something. It is the driving force behind human actions. Motivation doesn't just refer to the factors that activate it also involves the factors that direct and maintain these goal-directed actions (though such motives are rarely directly observable).

As a result, we often have to infer the reasons why people do the things that they do based on observable behaviors.

1 What exactly lies behind the motivations for why we act?
Psychologists have proposed different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory, and humanistic theory (such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs). The reality is that there are many different forces that guide and direct our motivations. Get Advice From The Mind Podcast Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Mind Podcast shares an exercise you can use to help you perform your Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise.

Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification. Is It Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation? Uses There are many different uses for motivation. It serves as a guiding force for all human behavior, but understanding how it works and the factors that may impact it can be important in a number of ways. Understanding motivation can: Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals Help people take action Encourage people to engage in health-oriented . Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive such as risk-taking and addiction.

Help people feel more in control of their lives. Improve overall well-being and happiness Impact. Anyone who has ever had a goal (like wanting to lose 20 pounds or run a marathon) probably immediately that simply having the desire to accomplish something is not enough. Achieving such a goal requires the ability to persist through obstacles and endurance to keep going in spite of difficulties. There are three major components of motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist. An example of persistence would be taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources. Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal.

For example, one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions, and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class. The first student lacks intensity, while the second pursues their educational goals with greater intensity. The degree of each of these components of motivation can impact whether or not you achieve your goal. Strong activation, for example, means that you are more likely to start pursuing a goal. Persistence and intensity will determine if you keep working toward that goal and how much effort you devote to reaching it. Tips All people experience fluctuations in their motivation and willpower.

Sometimes you might feel fired up and highly driven to reach your goals, while at other times you might feel listless or unsure of what you want or how to achieve it. Even if you're feeling low on motivation, there are steps you can take that will keep you moving forward. Some things you can do include. Adjust your goals to focus on things that really matter to you If you're tackling something that is just too big or too overwhelming, break it up into smaller steps and try setting your sights on achieving that first step toward progress Improve your confidence Remind yourself about what you achieved in the past and what where your strengths lie If there are things you feel insecure about, try working on making improvements in those areas so that you feel more skilled and capable.


Ayush  posted in 6260029752

Post updated on:  Sep 11, 2021 9:27:35 PM

Pranayama is one of the eight limbs of yoga. There are eight processes in Ashtanga yoga ? yam, aniyam, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, meditation, and samadhi. Pranayama = Prana + dimension. It literally means - 'prolonging prana (breathing)' or 'prolonging prana (life force)'. (Pranayama does not mean 'controlling the breath' or reducing it.) The amplitude or expansion of prana or breath is called pranayama. It gives life force to the person by flowing the life force.


pulse purification :


 In this, you have to sit with your legs crossed, the spine is straight.  Press your right nostril with your thumb and exhale through the left nostril.  Repeat this process on the other side as well.  Now repeat this whole process over and over again for 10-15 minutes.

 Sheetali Pranayama : 


 With this pranayama, an effort is made to keep the body cool.  Sit in the same posture as before.  Now take 6 deep breaths like this.  Now make an O shape with your mouth and breathe deeply and exhale through your nostrils.  Repeat this also 5-10 times.


 Ujjayi Pranayama :


 In this, the sound has to be made from the breath like the waves of the sea.  This gives a lot of relaxation.  Stay seated in the same posture, now breathe deeply so that the sound comes from the throat.  In the second step, keep your mouth closed and exhale through your nose.  Do this for a total of 10-15 times.



 Kapalabhati pranayam :


 In this also you have to sit in the same posture.  Breathe normally 2-3 times.  After this, you have to inhale strongly and exhale with the same force.  The effect of your inhalation and exhalation process should be visible here on your stomach.  Do this action 20-30 times.


 dirga pranayama :


 This action is done lying down.  Breathe fast so that your stomach swells, stay in this posture for a while and then slowly exhale outwards.  For the second time and the third time you have to take a deep breath in and leave it out like this after holding it for a while.  Do this action 5-6 times.

 Vilom Pranayama :


 There are two types of action in this.  In the first part you have to inhale and hold it for a while and then in the second part you have to exhale and hold it for a while.  Keep repeating this process 5-6 times.

 Anulom Pranayama :

 This antonym is similar to pranayama.  In this also one has to breathe in and out alternately through both the nostrils.  While breathing from one, keep the other nostril completely closed, follow the same process while breathing through the other nostril.


 Bhramari Pranayama :


 In this pranayama, both your eyes and ears are closed.  You close your ears with your thumbs and close your eyes with the help of your fingers.  Now take a deep breath and release while chanting Om.  Do this process 10-15 times.

 Bhastrika Pranayama :


 If you want to keep the body warm during cold days, then doing this pranayama is beneficial.  Take the posture by crossing the legs and take a quick breath in and out.  After a few rounds, slow down the process and end it like that.


 Sheetali Pranayama :

 Keep breathing through your mouth.  Keep rolling your tongue during this.  Keep your chin pointed forward and hold your breath for a few seconds.  Now exhale with the help of nose.  This brings coolness to your body.

 Murchha Pranayama :


 This is a bit difficult pranayama because it involves only exhaling without inhaling.  Due to this the amount of carbon dioxide in your body increases and at one point you come in a state of unconsciousness.  Now when you breathe on your own in the sleeping posture, then you get consciousness.

 Palvani Pranayama :

 This pranayama is done underwater and can only be done by an experienced yogi.  In this, you have to control your breath so much that you can remain in a calm posture even under water.


Benefits of Pranayama :

 The practice of Pranayama helps in getting rid of disorders related to stress, asthma and stammering.

 Depression can also be treated with pranayama.

 The practice of Pranayama leads to steady mind and strong will power.

 Apart from this, doing Pranayama regularly gives long life.

 Pranayama increases the life force in your body.

 If any of your pulse is blocked then pranayama opens it.

 Pranayama provides clarity to the mind and health to the body.

 Pranayama harmonizes the body, mind, and spirit.

Deepanjali  posted in Yoga

Post updated on:  Sep 10, 2021 11:02:42 PM

What Is Management?  

What is management?

Management is the coordination and administration of tasks to achieve a goal. Such administration activities include setting the organization?s strategy and coordinating the efforts of staff to accomplish these objectives through the application of available resources. Management can also refer to the seniority structure of staff members within an organization.
To be an effective manager, you?ll need to develop a set of skills, including planning, communication, organization and leadership. You will also need extensive knowledge of the company?s goals and how to direct employees, sales and other operations to accomplish them.                   

Setting objectives

Setting and achieving objectives is the primary way a manager accomplishes and maintains success. They must also be able to convey them to their staff or employees in a compelling manner. For instance, a restaurant manager could state they want to improve service times and remind employees that faster service increases revenue and tips.

2. Organizing

Managers evaluate the type of work, divide it into achievable tasks and effectively delegate it to staff. Organization consists of a series of relationships among individual staff as well as departments or entities inside the organization. It is the manager?s responsibility to ensure that these individuals and entities work together in harmony, which includes motivating staff members and departments to stay on task. A good manager is skilled at building interpersonal relationships among their team members and can troubleshoot when members confuse their encounter challenges.
Organization also requires a manager to establish relationships of authority among their team members. Maximizing organizationa arrangements can help businesses enhance the company?s efficiency in the market, reduce the costs of business and improve productivity.

3. Motivating the team

In addition to the tasks of organization and delegation, motivation includes having the skills to handle different types of personalities in a team. An effective manager must know how to form and lead successful teams and know how to galvanize team members around a cause.

4. Devising systems of measurement

Managers need to set targets or key performance indicators that the team aims for and then generate ways to measure whether their team is on track to meet those goals. Because it can be challenging to come up with measurable ways of understanding performance, managers must often be creative and thoughtful. However, like the other functions of management, measurement is critical to improving business performance.

5. Developing people

In addition to leading their team toward a goal and measuring their progress along the way, good managers invest in their staff?s development. Managers can, for example, work with their team to help them set goals to move up in their careers.
Managers must have leadership skills to use these five operations successfully. They are responsible for coaching their team members by helping them recogniz their strengths and weaknesses and improve their performance. Different managers may have different styles of leadership. Regardless of their style, managers should develop their leadership skills to be an effective supervisor.

Management concepts

A manager needs to understand a few simple ideas to employ the five basic operations. These concepts are essential to ensure their team comes together to reach the business? goals:
  • Control: Employees of an organization need to understand the goals that they are aiming for as well as the measurement that will be used to determine whether they have been successful. Different staff members in a company have different roles that entail separate levels of responsibility. A manager must have control over what the members do, how they do it and how to measure their progress. Control over these factors helps a manager reach success.

  • Planning: The best managers know that planning is critical before the implementation of any strategy, but it is also an ongoing activity. Planning does not end when implementation begins. Rather, management needs to be prepared to answer the questions of who, what, when and where a team is working to implement the organization?s mission. Planning should include selecting objectives as well as implementing them.

  • Staffing: Staffing is an underappreciated but crucial function of management. Managers need to ensure that they have the right people for the job, but they also need to pay attention to issues like organizing workplace policies. The company needs to retain the best talent by providing incentives such as benefits, paid time off and a thorough training program.

Management styles

Analysts who study management have identified several effective leadership styles. There is no one best style of management, and some people will feel more personally suited to one type or another. You can also select elements of different styles of management to create the best archetype for you and your company.
Here, we briefly review three positive management styles that can help make any manager a more effective leader.

Persuasive management style

A compelling leader spends a lot of time with their team members. Being engaged with employees allows the persuasive manager to lead by example, and to gain buy-in and compliance from the team by persuading rather than instructing or demanding. Influential managers are aware of the work that their team members are doing on a day-to-day basis and are involved in their work lives.

Democratic management style

A democratic manager invites the team to be directly involved in decision-making. Open lines of communication between democratic managers and employees allow these types of managers to understand the skills and advantages that each employee brings to the table. Open participation and exchange of ideas among different levels of employees allow everyone to contribute to the outcome of a decision or a project.
This style of management is more successful when managers develop organized and streamlined decision-making processes. Otherwise, accepting input from everyone can make the process sluggish and organizing.

Laissez-faire management

The laissez-faire manager functions almost more like a mentor than a manager. They empower their employees to step up and make decisions. This allows the team to feel like they own a part of each project. The manager takes a backseat role, stepping in to offer advice or get things back on track when something goes wrong. Otherwise, they stand aside, allowing their employees to flourish creatively and exercise their own leadership.

Three layers of management

Large businesses and corporations often have three primary levels of management organized in a hierarchical structure. You may have heard terms that refer to these different layers of management,  such as ?middle management? or ?senior management.? 

Low-level management

Low-level managers include roles like front-line team leaders, foremen, section leads and supervisors. This level of management, the lowest in the three layers, is responsible for overseeing the everyday work of individual employees or staff members and providing them with direction on their work.
Low-level management?s responsibilities often include ensuring the quality of employees? work, guiding staff in everyday activities and routing employee problems through the appropriate channels. They also are responsible for the day-to-day supervision and career planning for their team, as well as providing feedback on their employees? performance.

Middle management

Middle managers, the next layer in the management hierarchy, are overseen by senior management. Middle management includes those working in the roles of a department manager, regional manager and branch manager. Middle management is responsible for communicating the strategic goals developed by senior management down the line to front-line managers.
In contrast with senior management, middle managers spend more of their time on directional and organisational functions. This includes defining and discussing important policies for lower management, providing guidance to lower-level management to achieve better performance and executing organisational plans at the direction of senior management.

Senior management

Senior management, including the chief executive officer, president, vice president and board members, is at the top layer of this management hierarchy. Senior management needs to set the overall goals and direction of an organization. Senior management develops strategic plans and company-wide policy and makes decisions about the direction of the organization at the highest level. They also usually play an essential role in mobilizing outside resources and are held accountable to the company?s shareholders as well as the general public for the performance of the company.

Tips for being a good manager

There are several ways to advance your management skills, including:
  • Communicate. It is important to communicate with your team so you can understand their needs, evaluate their progress and help them achieve their goals.

  • Be positive. You should be the one to set an example for your team to follow. Be positive during your interactions with your team so they feel more comfortable communicating with you.

  • Train when needed. Assess the skills of your team and see if you could improve any areas with training. Training also helps your team learn new skills and fosters growth.

  • Collaborate. As a manager, you should feel comfortable delegating tasks, but you also work with your team to accomplish common objectives. Collaborating with your team will also allow you to see if there?s anything you can do to help individual teammates or the team as a whole.

  • Practice. Perhaps the best way to acquire new skills is to practice them in a real-life management setting. Gaining on-the-job experience in these skills will help you on the promotion ladder. Do your best for your team, serve as a leader and treat your team fairly . RelatedWhat Is a Manager?

Five basic operations of a manage In general, there are five basic functions of a manager.                                       

1.Setting objectives.

2. Organizing.

3. Motivating the team.

4. Devising systems of  measurement.

5.  Developing people.

Ayush  posted in 6260029752

Post updated on:  Sep 10, 2021 10:44:45 PM

Auditing of bill statements in Hotel's Front office department.
The audit is a daily review of in house guest transactions in the guest folio. The routine helps guarantee the accuracy, reliability and thoroughness of front office accounting.
This audit is generally performed during the late evening hours.  The most convenient time to perform the audit is during the late evening and early morning hours, as most of the point of sales are closed during this time. This helps the front office personal to work with minimal interruption.
The audit is simplified by Front office accounting software's as there is a little chance of any error.
For example:
 
In the bill a night auditor will check:
1. Reconcile all posting: The transactions of room rent, POS's, discounts, telephone charges,  etc in guest folio have the correct amount or not.
2. Checking the authenticity of transactions: The postings mentioned in the guest bill must pertains to the same guest , for this there has to be the supporting voucher enclosed.
3. Calculation error- The auditor will check the calculations of total amount, discounts and taxes applicable. Whereas, automated system has released the burden of calculations from the auditor.
4. Check on payment- Also he will audit the payment done by the guest and will inform the front office to collect payment from the high balance guest.
 
 

 
 
 Here are some of the major functions of night audit
  1. Ensures roll over from one business day to the next day
  2. Reconciles all front office cash counters/accounts
  3. Verifies posted entries to guest/non-guest accounts
  4. Resolves room status and rate discrepancies
  5. Most importantly, generates several MIS reports called night audit reports
How to do night audit in a hotel?
Night audit is a mandatory process for hotels of all sizes, categories and services. The most convenient time to perform night audit is between the late evening and early morning ? just after the business day closes. This is the time when most revenue centers and POS outlets at a hotel are closed, making it the ideal time to perform night audit. This helps the front office personnel, also called night auditor to initiate and finish the night audit process with minimal interruption.
For the night auditor, some of the steps in the night audit process are ?

Total outstanding charge posting

Hotel night auditor needs to ensure that all guest transaction happened in a day are correctly captured, charged and posted to guest accounts.

Reconcile room status

The night auditor must evaluate and analyze a particular day?s occupancy report and the housekeeping room status report to find out the correct occupancy status of a hotel.

Verify room rates

It is mandatory to compare guest registration records with room reports to ensure rack rate and actual rates are the same.

Verify no-shows of the day

By verifying no-shows of the day in the front office console, the night auditor ensures that the no-show bills are duly charged, and the rooms are marked as ?available? for future dates.

Balance all departmental accounts

This process of balancing all revenue center accounts is called ?Trial Balance? that helps in accurately posting the day?s room and tax charges.
The night audit process can be done manually ? by pen and paper, or by using a hotel property management system (Hotel PMS). While doing the same by pen and paper is a time-consuming and tedious process that leads to multiple errors, a Hotel PMS efficiently automates the whole process. Take Hotelogix cloud-based Hotel PMS for example that helps you with an efficient night audit so that you can establish 100% accuracy of the process while cutting down heavily on manual intervention that may lead to errors.
 
 

Post updated on:  Sep 9, 2021 10:27:45 PM

Light is the form of energy which helps the person to see anything correctly. Light is used to travel in straight line. The sound acts as the waves. It can change it's way.  Nothing has higher speed that that of the speed of the light. The light has highest value in case of its speed.

The light can easily move in straight line, it is not possible for light to move in curve path .




Reflection - When the light falls on the surface of the body, then the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are equal to each other.

Refraction -  The process of the deviation of the light from the straight path, is called as a refraction. 




Many people wants to know how it is possible for us to see the object. When the light is coming from the source of light, it goes to the body. Light comes from  that object enters into our eyes.  Then the eye sees an body. Luminous bodies are the body which emits light. Sun is called as the luminous bodies. The non-luminous bodies are the  bodies which do not emit light themselves. Table, book are called as the non- luminous bodies.  A bright body is visible to the observer of the light, when the light of the  body is incident on it and from there the light reaches eyes. 



Shailendra  posted in Science

Post updated on:  Sep 8, 2021 10:07:48 PM

Module 1
Filling of Guest Registration Card
Guest Registration, as the word itself is saying, To register the guest, To record the details of guest at the time of check in. This record is done on Guest Registration Card.
Taking registration of a guest at the time of check in is mandatory for both  the guest as well as hotel. During registration, the guest is required to enter important information on the Guest Registration Card such as guest name, contact number, address, Date of arrival, Time of arrival, Date of departure, Time of departure, purpose of stay at the hotel, and passport and visa details in case of foreign guest. It is the duty of the front office staff not to disclose the guest details to anyone.
Pre-registration Procedure
The GRC is printed one day prior to guest arrival, and then the partially filled GRC is arranged in pigeon holes in alphabetical order. Once a guest arrives, the respective slot has to be looked for to find the guest GRC form.
 
At the time of Guest Arrival
As the guest name is already filled on partial GRC form, and the GRC?s are arranged in alphabetical order, the only task of the person taking a check-in is to, ask for the guest name. For ex. If the guest name is Mr. John Smith. The GRA has to go to pigeon hole "J" and ask for a genuine ID proof.

Verifying Guest's Identity
Since terror attacks on 9/11, the hotels are mandatorily verifying guests' identities. The staff verifies guest's identity first by politely asking the guest's name. The staff member then requests to show a photo ID such as driving license or a valid identity card from a well-known organization where the guest is working. If the guests are from a foreign country, the staff requests them to show passport. The staff member is authorized to ask any verifying questions politely.

The true copies of the passport or ID card are made to verify the guest's identity and to prepare guest record.
Creating Registration Record
The front desk staff hands over the GRC to the guest to fill up the information. In case of VIPs, the staff enters the following details on the card
 
1. Guest Name- Last name, Middle name and First name.
2. Designation- The position of the Guest in his company.
3. The guest Organization's name, address, his/her date of birth, Occupation. Marriage anniversary date- These details are taken for records, for future purpose.
4. Arrived from and proceeding to, proposed duration of stay in India - is for which city the guest has come and where will she/he is  proceeding next. As the hotels has to keep a complete record of foreigners coming to India.
5. Arrival date and Time and Departure date and time is very important as hotels are working on Check-in Check-out basis.
6. Mode of Payment clarifies by what mode guest is making a payment. 
7. Terms and Conditions varies from hotel to hotel. Few Examples of terms and conditions can be
 a. Check-in/ check-out time: 12 Noon.
 b. All valuables and cash should be deposited with the cashier.
 c. We don not accept personal cheques.
8. Nationality, Passport details are noted, after verifying form passport.
9. Room rate , Room Type, No of people.
 
And then the  guest's signature is received on the GRC.

 Establishing Payment Method
Guests can pay in advance or at the time of checking-out. Those who have paid in advance are put under Paid-In-Advance (PIA) list. There are various modes of payment out of which a mode that guest prefers is recorded at the time of registration. Following payment methods are available −
  • Cash Payment (which also include money order, travelers cheque).
  • Credit Card/Debit Card Payment (which are accepted only if the cards have not expired).
  • Cheque Payment (where post-dated cheques are not accepted).
  • Direct Billing.
  • Special Payment such as gift card and voucher.
  • The guests need to select one of the options of payment at the time of registration.

Divya  posted in Front office

Post updated on:  Sep 6, 2021 7:13:21 PM

When we apply the hammer on the nail, then the nail go inside the surface of the wood. But if the nail has not sharp edge at its front point, then the nail will not go inside the wood fastly. If the nail has the sharp edge on the front point, then the nail will go inside the wood very quickly. This implies that the surface of contact would determine magnitude of the force.  The pressure on the surface will decrease if the surface of contact increases. 

                   If the pressure has to be decreased, then the surface under the contact should be decreased. The place where the purpose is to decrease the pressure, the person should increase the area of contact. If the person want to increase the pressure, then the area of contact between the two surfaces should be decreased.


जब हम हथौड़े को कील पर लगाते हैं तो कील लकड़ी की सतह के अंदर चली जाती है। लेकिन अगर कील के सामने वाले हिस्से में तेज धार न हो तो कील जल्दी लकड़ी के अंदर नहीं जाएगी। अगर कील के सामने वाले हिस्से पर नुकीला धार है तो कील बहुत जल्दी लकड़ी के अंदर चली जाएगी। इसका तात्पर्य यह है कि संपर्क की सतह बल के परिमाण को निर्धारित करेगी। संपर्क की सतह बढ़ने पर सतह पर दबाव कम हो जाएगा। यदि दबाव कम करना है, तो संपर्क के नीचे की सतह को कम किया जाना चाहिए। जिस स्थान पर दबाव कम करने का उद्देश्य हो, उस स्थान पर व्यक्ति को संपर्क का क्षेत्र बढ़ाना चाहिए। यदि व्यक्ति दबाव बढ़ाना चाहता है, तो दोनों सतहों के बीच संपर्क का क्षेत्र कम होना चाहिए।

Pressure is directly proportional to the force applied to the body. It is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the body.

 Force = pressure*area



Questions asked by reader -

What is the unit of pressure ?

Unit of pressure = Pascal








Shailendra  posted in Science

Post updated on:  Sep 6, 2021 7:09:06 PM

 भगवान श्री कृष्ण की अद्भुत कई सारी लीलाएं है l उनका भक्तों के साथ  प्रेम भरा संबंध दिखता है l भक्त भगवान को अपने इच्छा अनुसार कुछ भी काम करवा लेता है l यह बात बहुत ही अजीब लग रही है l पर यह सच है कि भगवान श्री कृष्ण अपने भक्त के वश में है l 
श्री कृष्ण और राधा जी की भक्ति में लीन एक भक्त थे उनका नाम था - हरिदास ठाकुर l उन्होंने भगवान श्री कृष्ण की वृंदावन में बहुत ही प्रेम भक्ति  की थी l
भगवान उनकी भक्ति भरे गाने को सुनकर प्रकट हो जाते l    एक बार कलयुग के लोगों के बारे में सोच कर उनके भक्त दुखी हो, उन्होंने सोचा कि कलयुग के लोग भगवान का भजन और पूजा अच्छे से नहीं कर पाएंगे l सभी लोग दूषित हो जाएंगे l सभी लोगों का मन और बुद्धि कमजोर हो जाएगा l मन बहुत ही चंचल हो जाएगा l कलयुग में  
जीवो द्वारा पाप बहुत ज्यादा होगा l आपने धाम ले जाने के लिए भगवान को कृपा करनी चाहिए l

इसके लिए उन्होंने भगवान के सामने शर्त रखी -  हे भगवान, आप कृपया करके कलयुग के जीवो के उद्धार के लिए श्री बांके बिहारी के रूप में प्रकट  हो l भगवान अपने भक्तों की किसी भी बात को टाल नहीं सकते l






Shailendra  posted in Science

Post updated on:  Sep 5, 2021 3:21:42 AM

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