PRECAUTIONS IN THE USE OF STORAGE PESTICIDES, FIRST
AID MEASURES AND ANTIDOTES
A number of pesticides such as Malathion, DDVP, Aluminum phosphide,
Methyl bromide, Zinc phosphide and anti coagulants are used in grain storage
for the control of stored grain insect
pests and rodents. All these pesticides are highly poisonous chemicals and
toxic to human beings and animals. These pesticides should be used with due
care. Their careless handling may cause serious pesticide poisoning. Some of
the important precautions to be taken while handling these pesticides are as
1. Always read
the instructions printed on the label of the pesticides and follow them.
should be kept away from the reach of children and domestic animals. It is
safer if the pesticides are kept under lock and key.
3. Never store
the pesticides along with food and feed.
4. While using
pesticides, protective clothing viz hand gloves, aprons, rubber boots and gas
masks should be used by the operators.
5. Hands and
other parts of body should be thoroughly washed with soap after using the
6. The empty
containers of the pesticides should be dumped into the earth and these should
not be used for storage of food items.
smoking and eating are strictly prohibited during the use of pesticides.
8. The nozzle
of the sprayer should not be cleared and blown with mouth.
If we take all these precautions,
we may avoid the poisoning of pesticides. But some times due to accident or
some or other reasons, pesticide poisoning may occur. In such cases, first aid
measures should be immediately taken to minimize the toxic effect of poisoning
of pesticides. Some of the important first aid measures are as follows:
Immediately remove the patient from the godown or
warehouse to open place and he should be allowed to rest in the open.
The patient should be induced vomiting so that the
pesticide may come out from the stomach and may not cause damage to the vital
part of the body. For vomiting, common salt or powered mustard seed along with
plenty of water may be used.
The symptoms of pesticide poisoning
of some of the pesticides and their anti dotes are given below:
insecticides (Malathion, DDVP etc)
All Organo phosphorous
insecticides such as Malathion, DDVP etc are poisonous chemicals. Nausea (feeling of vomiting) is the first
poisoning symptom of all organo phosphorous insecticides. It is followed by vomiting, diarrhea, headache,
giddiness, vertigo and weakness. There may be difficulty in breathing and
disruption of nerve functioning. Death may be caused by anoxia (lack of
Antedotes: Atropine sulphate is the specific antidote of organo phosphrous poisoning.
This may be given in repeated doses of 2-4 mg at 5-10 minutes interval. 25-50
mg atropine sulphate may be given in a day.
Aluminium phosphide: The
poisoning symptoms are feeling of fatigue, buzzing in ears, nausea, pressure in
chest, intestinal pain diarrhea and vomiting. Oxygen therapy should be provided
to the patient and drug which stimulate blood circulation should be given.
Stomach should be washed with 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate. Blood
transfusion or infusion of glucose in the blood is recommended.
Zinc phosphide: Stomach should be washed with 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate.
The small amount of copper sulphate solution in water (0.2%) should be given to the patient which will
neutralize the effect of zinc phosphide.
Anticoagulant rodenticides: Vitamin K
is the antidote of all anticoagulant rodenticides.
Universal Antidote: An
universal antidote consisting of activated charcoal, tannic acid and magnesium
oxide may be given in all types of pesticide poisoning. 3 gm of activated
charcoal, 3gm of tannic acid and 4 gm of magnesium oxide may be given with one
glass of water.